Phase 82 in 2021



Industry news

 

Microsoft plans to build 50 to 100 data centers every year and expand 10 new market areas in 2021


 

News on April 25 today, Microsoft disclosed its new plan for the next few years. This includes the construction of 50 to 100 data centers each year, and plans to expand to 10 new market regions by the end of 2021.

 

 

It is understood that earlier this week, Microsoft story lab launched the “we live in the cloud” website to lead you to visit the data centers of this technology giant around the world.

 

Although no more detailed roadmap has been released, the company currently manages more than 200 data centers in 34 market regions around the world. However, it is speculated that in order to achieve the goal of building at least 50 data centers every year, it must include the physical consolidation and transformation of some data centers and the partnership with other enterprises.

 

Interestingly, due to the shortage of components and other factors, Microsoft complained last year that the company had difficulties in investing in the data center business.

 

It is understood that the new we live in the cloud tour site launched by Microsoft aims to attract students and researchers and help enterprises quickly understand the layout of the planned data center. In addition, on the web page, you can view the innovative guidance exercises equipped with quantum computers, DNA storage research and related solutions.

 

Guangdong: accelerate the cultivation of semiconductor and integrated circuit industries and actively develop the third generation semiconductor

 

News on April 25 today, Guangdong Province released the outline of the “14th five year plan”, which proposed to accelerate the cultivation of semiconductor and integrated circuit industries, lay out and build high-end characteristic analog process production lines and SOI (silicon insulator technology) process R & D lines, and actively develop third-generation semiconductor, high-end SOC (system level) and other chip products. Accelerate the cultivation of high-end equipment manufacturing industry, and focus on the development of high-end CNC machine tools, aviation equipment, satellites and applications, rail transit equipment, intelligent robots, precision instruments and other industries. Accelerate the cultivation of hydrogen energy industry, build a fuel cell vehicle demonstration city cluster, and break through the core technology of key components of fuel cells.

 

2021 is the first year of the 14th five year plan, and also the year when the two Centennial goals meet and change. The proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on formulating the fourteenth five year plan for national economic and social development and the long-term goals for the year 2013 points out that we should take self-reliance and self-improvement in science and technology as the strategic support for national development, and propose that we should aim at the frontier fields such as artificial intelligence, quantum information and integrated circuits, and implement a number of forward-looking and strategic major national science and technology projects.

 

Previously, Guangdong’s 14th five year plan proposed to fight for key core technologies, speed up the completion of weaknesses in integrated circuits, new materials, industrial software, high-end equipment and other fields, focus on forging long boards in the fifth generation mobile communication, ultra-high definition display and other fields, strengthen R & D layout in the frontier fields of artificial intelligence, blockchain, quantum technology and so on, and seize the strategic commanding height.

 

Among them, the 14th five year plan of Shenzhen proposes to focus on integrated circuits, new artificial intelligence displays, key new materials, basic software and other fields, and implement the key technology research plan for major equipment and key parts. Build a national industrial innovation center and a manufacturing innovation center in the fields of integrated circuits, high-end devices for future communications, ultra-high definition video, etc. We will focus on developing strategic advanced manufacturing clusters such as integrated circuits.

 

The proposal of Guangzhou’s 14th five year plan proposes to fight for key core technologies, support the research and development of core technologies in key areas such as integrated circuits, and systematically solve the “bottleneck” problems of core basic parts, key basic materials, advanced basic processes and industrial technology. Improve the whole industrial chain of integrated circuits, ultra-high definition video and new display.

 

At the Guangzhou two sessions, it was proposed to implement the “Suixin” project and accelerate the gathering of leading enterprises in the design, manufacturing, packaging, testing and other industries.

 

Honda: it has been developing small rockets and will enter the space business in the future

 

On April 25, it was reported that Japan’s Honda revealed on April 23 that it would set its future space business as its goal. Several years ago, it began to promote the development of small rockets and use the experience of the automotive industry to reduce costs.

 

It is reported that Toyota Motor Company and Japan Aerospace Research and Development Agency (JAXA) are jointly developing the development of lunar rover.

 

It is understood that Honda technology research industry is a multinational transportation vehicle and machinery manufacturing company in Japan, which is mainly famous for its automobile, motorcycle, aircraft, engine and power equipment production business. At the peak of motorcycle production in 1982, the annual production of Honda’s motorcycles was close to 3million.

 

In 2020, the revenue of Ziguang shares was 59.705 billion yuan, and the operator business was 5.658 billion yuan

 

On April 25, Ziguang Co., Ltd. recently announced its 2020 annual results. During the reporting period, Ziguang achieved a revenue of 59.705 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 10.36%; The net profit attributable to shareholders of listed companies was 1.895 billion yuan, an increase of 2.78% year-on-year.

 

In the past year, Ziguang invested 4.131 billion yuan in R & D, a year-on-year increase of 4.81%, especially in the field of network communication chips. It has developed and launched a new generation of high-performance programmable core network processor chips, and will keep the iterative method of mass production and design generation for continuous technological evolution.

 

The financial report pointed out that in the past year, focusing on the “cloud network edge end core” industrial chain, unisplent released a new “AI in all” intelligent strategy, comprehensively introduced AI capabilities into products and solutions, improved the level of digital and intelligent enabling, and continued to increase the scale of digital infrastructure and service business revenue with cloud computing infrastructure construction and industrial intelligent applications as the core.

 

It is worth mentioning that in the past year, the holding subsidiary of Ziguang shares, Xinhua third group, focused on the three major markets of government enterprise business, operator business and international business, and the government enterprise business continued to maintain a leading position. The operators’ business grew rapidly and fully participated in the construction of 5g network infrastructure of operators. Under the guidance of the “three clouds and two networks” business strategy, they provided operators with innovative products and solutions for cloud network security integration. At the same time, the international business is progressing steadily.

 

Xinhua 3 achieved an operating revenue of 36.799 billion yuan in the whole year, a year-on-year increase of 14.08%, and its key operator business and international business showed a strong growth trend. The business income of operators reached 5.658 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 67.15%; In the international business, the revenue of H3C brand products and services of Xinhua III reached 718million yuan, a year-on-year increase of 61.45%.

 

In addition, according to the data, in 2020, Ziguang’s share in China’s Ethernet switch market reached 35% and China’s enterprise network router market reached 30.8%, both ranking second in the market; The market share of China’s enterprise WLAN is 31.3%, ranking first in the market; The market share of X86 server in China ranks third, reaching 15.4%; China’s storage market and China’s super integrated market share ranked second; The market share of UTM firewall in China ranks third.

 

Europe’s largest EV fast charging Park “landed” in Germany at the end of the year

 

On Friday, April 25, local time (April 23), the German utility company Baden Wuerttemberg energy (hereinafter referred to as enbw) said that it planned to open the largest public rapid charging park for electric vehicles in Europe in the fourth quarter. At that time, 52 electric vehicles will be able to charge with renewable electricity at the same time.

 

It is reported that this fast charging park will be located at the intersection of kamener Kreuz Expressway in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany, to provide renewable energy power for each 300 kW high-power charging point. It will allow the car to charge for only five minutes, with a range of up to 100 kilometers.

 

Timo sillober, chief sales and operation officer of enbw, said, “Kamen charging station is the next step of fast charging. Before that, we had a new fast charging place put into use every day, which has lasted for more than a year.” Enbw, a power company mainly owned by the public sector, has developed activities related to electric vehicles.

 

It is reported that the power for the operation of the charging park will come from the newly-built photovoltaic modules, although the solar energy is not enough to meet all the charging needs. Enbw plans to operate 2500 fast charging stations in Germany by 2025, more than the number of German gas stations of any major oil company.

 

In addition, the company has established a contract for drivers, who can purchase at the site operated by enbw through the mobile application and exchange with other suppliers’ charging points. Enbw has 5.5 million customer accounts and provides electricity, natural gas and water as well as energy services.

 

Previously, in November 2020, Germany launched a 3billion euro (about RMB 23.573 billion) plan in November to expand the rebates for consumers to buy electric vehicles and wall mounted chargers, and support the plans to scrap old cars and invest in innovation. Analysts said that more and more public charging stations will ease people’s concerns about the use of electric vehicles and bring value-added business opportunities around the charging stations.

 

new product

 

Amd zen3+/zen4 architecture is fully exposed: IPC is up to 22%


 

On April 25, according to the latest information, AMD is expected to launch zen3+ and zen4 architectures in the next two years, corresponding to the 6000 series Warhol and 7000 series Raphael processors of the Reebok respectively. First of all, it is said that Warhol is based on 6nm technology and is expected to launch in the fourth quarter of this year. In terms of architecture, it can be called zen3+ or zen3 refresh, and the corresponding Reebok 6000 series continues the AM4 interface.

 

 

It is pointed out in the disclosure that the Reebok 6000 series will reach the frequency level of 5GHz, and the IPC (instruction set per clock cycle) is improved by 9~12% compared with zen3.

 

The direct competitor of the Reebok 6000 will be Intel’s 12th generation core processor alder lake, an innovative big Little size core hybrid architecture, up to 16 cores, 10nm superfin process, x86 large core golden Cove is 20~25% higher than the previous generation willow cove.

 

As for the zen4 Reebok 7000, thanks to the continuous personality of 5nm, ddr5 memory support, prefetching, caching, etc., IPC can be increased by 40~45% compared with zen2. In a simple conversion, the official figure of zen3’s IPC increase compared with zen2’s is 19%, and zen4’s IPC increase compared with zen3’s is about 22%, which is still an exciting figure.

 

One billion color oppo official announced K series smart TV on May 6

 

On April 25, according to the official wechat of oppo, K series smart TV was launched at the K9 series press conference at 15:00 p.m. on May 6, and the pre-sale link was also directly announced. It is a 43 inch TV.

 

 

At present, the specific specifications have not been announced, but the official mentioned onebillion colors. Considering that oppo has previously introduced the concept of onebillion colors in the find X3 series, this K-series smart TV will obviously also release high-end image quality technology and support 10bit colors.

In addition, it can be seen that the K series smart TV has a thin frame, excellent appearance design, high screen share, and supports hdr10+ certification.

 

In November last year, oppo officially entered the smart TV market and launched its flagship high-end oppo smart TV S1 and high-quality oppo smart TV R1. The former is a 65 inch 4K 120Hz quantum dot TV at a price of 7999 yuan, while the latter has two 4K TVs, 55 inch and 65 inch, at a price of 3299 yuan and 4299 yuan respectively.

 

At present, the price of K series smart TV has not been announced, but according to the analysis, it will be more inclined to the mainstream.

 

5g

 

German Bundestag passed 5g new safety law, expert: Germany’s position has regressed compared with the past


 

On April 25, according to foreign media reports, the German Bundestag passed a stricter 5g network security legislation on the 23rd. It is reported that this has put an end to the doubts of the outside world over whether the largest market in Europe will take a tough attitude towards Chinese telecom giant Huawei in the past two years.

 

“Huawei welcomes the information technology security law passed by the German Bundestag.” Song Keteng, head of the public relations department of Huawei’s German branch, said that this means that all equipment service providers must meet higher and unified security standards.

 

It is reported that the “Information Technology Security Law 2.0” newly approved by the German Bundestag will restrict the role played by “untrustworthy” suppliers of 5g technology and require telecom operators to notify the German government when signing contracts for key 5g components.

 

In addition, the security law also gives the government the power to prevent the signing of 5g contracts and order the demolition of installed 5g equipment. German Interior Minister zehofer said, “if suppliers are not trustworthy, they can refuse to use key components.” The Parliamentarians added that the use of key 5g components must comply with the “security policy objectives” of Germany, the European Union and NATO in the future. Christian League member bernstier stressed on the 23rd that the new security law is not aimed at Huawei, but the German news agency believes that the law “provides a broader legal basis” for excluding Huawei from the construction of 5g networks in Germany.

 

The European Edition of the US political news network said that due to the failure of German government departments and political parties to make decisions on key market access issues, the discussion on Huawei’s position in Germany basically stalled last year. Compared with the bill proposed by the German government last December, the position of the new security law appears to be more rigid. The law gives the German Ministry of the interior greater power to veto the signing of 5g contracts. In contrast, other departments “more inclined” to choose Huawei, such as the Ministry of economy, have less power on this issue.

 

Cuihongjian, director of the European Institute of the China Academy of international studies, said in an interview with the global times on the 24th that although Germany’s attitude towards 5g and Huawei did not change as fast as that of some European countries, it was actually changing all the time. The information technology security law passed by the German Bundestag this time openly takes the so-called national and internal security as a standard, indicating that in the future, Germany will no longer only consider the so-called technical principle, but the principle of “technology plus security”. Therefore, Germany’s position on this issue is somewhat backward compared with the past.

 

Internet of things

 

BOE Chengdu Digital Hospital opened and invested 6billion yuan to build a model of smart medical innovation in Southwest China


 

On April 25, BOE, a global Internet of things innovation enterprise, announced that Chengdu BOE hospital, a 6billion smart hospital, was officially opened. After the opening of Chengdu BOE hospital, its service area will radiate the medical market in the southwest region, greatly improve the medical service level in the region, and further strengthen the scale advantage of BOE’s southwest life science and technology industry base, becoming a new growth pole for BOE’s intelligent medical industry and even the Internet of things.

 

 

Liuxiaoliu, vice mayor of Chengdu Municipal People’s government, yumengsun, academician of Chinese Academy of engineering, Wuqi, director of Sichuan Medical Insurance Bureau, and songshigui, deputy director of Sichuan health commission attended the opening ceremony.

 

Chenyanshun, chairman of BOE, said at the opening ceremony, “As an important innovation engine for the transformation of the Internet of things, smart medical industry is a strategic choice we make for the future based on human health and happiness. We promote the integration and innovation of medical industry through technological empowerment, integrate the world’s top resources, rely on digital hospitals, build a hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system with the health Internet of things platform as the core, form a smart health management ecosystem, adhere to the core concept of people-centered, and provide The all-round and full cycle closed-loop intelligent health services make it easier for consumers to see a doctor and live a better life. “

 

It is reported that Chengdu BOE hospital is located in Chengdu Tianfu international biological city, covering an area of 354 mu, with 2000 beds and a construction area of 385000 square meters. The hospital adopts the “strong specialty + large comprehensive” mode. Based on the standards set by tertiary hospitals, it carries out frontier disciplines such as precision medicine, biotechnology and minimally invasive medicine, and provides smart medical services including smart clinic, smart nursing and smart medical technology. The hospital has built a set of innovative hospital operation mode with BOE characteristics, which enables medical professionals to focus on caring for patients, improve hospital operation efficiency, and provide patients with better personalized and high-quality medical services.

 

It is understood that in recent years, BOE has successively set up a number of digital hospitals in Beijing, Hefei, Chengdu, Suzhou and other places, and also prospectively set up a life science and technology industry base in the southwest, forming a regional linkage effect and driving the rapid development of the regional medical and health industry. With the comprehensive deployment of BOE’s “1+4+n” IOT strategy, smart medical industry has increasingly become an important growth pole for BOE’s IOT innovation and development.

 

Industrial control and medical treatment

 

Huajie intelligent control released vm3209a PROFINET IO module


 

It was reported on April 25 that today, Huajie intelligent control released vm3209a PROFINET IO module, which can be used as the PROFINET slave module of Siemens PLC. It integrates Modbus RTU to PROFINET gateway and supports Siemens 200smart, 30012001500 and other PLCs.

 

 

Huajie intelligent control industrial intelligent PROFINET remote IO provides independent data collection, integrates modbussrs485 equipment, forms Modbus protocol and connects to PROFINET to realize the technical requirements of PROFINET monitoring MODBUS equipment. It can realize MODBUS to PROFINET, PROFINET to Modbus RTU and protocol conversion; The digital input supports PNP and NPN adaptation, and the digital output subdivides relays and transistors. The analog accuracy reaches 12 bits, o.1%, 0-20ma/0-sv/0-10v. It can also be customized according to customers’ own needs The temperature supports PT100 and PT1000 thermocouples, and Modbus RTU and profinet485 protocol are exchanged to automatically generate GSD files.

 



 

PROFINET IO is a PROFIBUS international Ethernet based automation standard. It defines cross vendor communication, automation, and engineering configuration models. With PROFINET IO, a switching technology enables all stations to access the network at any time. Therefore, multiple nodes can transmit data at the same time, so that the network can be used more efficiently. The simultaneous sending and receiving of data can be realized through the full duplex operation of Switched Ethernet (the bandwidth is 100 Mbps).

 

AI

 

Cooperation between SAIC r automobile and Xiaobing company: AI Xiaobing serves as the brand imagination Officer


 

It was reported on April 25 that the 2021 Shanghai auto show ushered in the first weekend public day. SAIC intelligent pure electric automobile brand r automobile announced to cooperate with Xiaobing and let AI Xiaobing serve as the imagination officer of R automobile. In addition, Xiaobing and musician zhujingxi jointly created the R automobile brand theme song “science and technology realizes imagination”.

 

 

The song uses the world’s leading artificial intelligence music technology to interpret the brand concept of R automobile “science and technology realizes imagination” and the brand belief that “users are partners and travel is service”.

 

At the same time, R automobile and Xiaobing company under SAIC Group officially announced that Xiaobing will be stationed in R automobile and become a travel partner with users. In the future, the two sides will continue to explore the possibility of the application of artificial intelligence technology in the automotive field. For example, relying on the artificial intelligence vehicle +iot solution jointly launched by Microsoft and Xiaobing, the two sides will comprehensively upgrade the on-board AI experience, and relying on AI creation to upgrade the user experience.

 

It is understood that Microsoft × Xiaobing AI automobile +iot solution has been widely used in the automobile and IOT industries. It is committed to upgrading the voice assistant to a virtual partner who understands emotion and loves creation, and providing users with a natural and emotional interactive experience. When entering the vertical field, Xiaobing will apply the advantages formed in the to C field to the C-end users in the b-end industry.

 

Baidu Lingyi Zhihui appeared in 2021chinc to comprehensively display AI medical products

 

News on April 25 recently, at the 2021 China Hospital Information Network Conference (China) held in Hangzhou, baidu Lingyi Zhihui appeared with a full range of AI medical solutions, displaying AI medical black technology products such as fundus image analysis system, CDSs, smart medical records, medical big data, chronic disease management, etc.

 

It is reported that at present, Lingyi Zhihui has launched a series of solutions such as fundus image analysis system, clinical assistant decision-making system (CDSS), intelligent medical record solution and “love to help doctors” basic medical solution, which have reached 29 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, more than 300 hospitals and more than 1500 basic medical institutions, serving tens of thousands of doctors.

 

Lingyi Zhihui takes AI image screening as the starting point, takes multimodal authoritative labeled fundus image data as the basis, integrates evidence-based medicine basic algorithm and deep learning high-precision algorithm, creates a fundus image analysis system with high robustness and high accuracy, covers major eye diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetes retinopathy, and helps Chinese grass-roots 100 million high-risk people find eye diseases in advance to avoid the risk of blindness.

 

In addition, by learning a large number of textbooks, clinical guidelines, Pharmacopoeia and high-quality medical records of the third class hospitals, and based on Baidu natural language processing, knowledge atlas and other AI technologies, Lingyi Zhihui has created a clinical decision-making system in line with evidence-based medicine to improve medical quality and reduce medical risks. The system includes multiple functions such as auxiliary interrogation, auxiliary diagnosis, treatment scheme recommendation, medical order quality control, etc. the system fully meets the requirements of relevant standards such as the hierarchical evaluation of the functional application level of the national electronic medical record system and the maturity evaluation of the medical and health information interoperability standard.

 

In view of the current situation of weak primary medical resources and insufficient capacity, Lingyi Zhihui has launched a love and help medical solution that meets the use needs of primary scenarios, to improve the inquiry and diagnosis ability of primary doctors, supplemented by rich knowledge base support, and combined with Baidu’s voice input, intelligent outbound call and other AI capabilities to improve the diagnosis and treatment efficiency of doctors.

 

Baidu introduced that, based on its leading AI and big data technologies and in combination with Lingyi Zhihui’s deep insight into the wisdom of medical digitalization, it provides a one-stop medical big data service platform for data governance, data semantic understanding, data analysis and data application, making medical big data understandable, calculable and recyclable, and effectively stimulating the potential of medical big data.

 

Automotive electronics

 

Kia and Baidu Apollo cooperated and upgraded to promote the implementation of new products based on GEN1 China OEM platform


 

On April 25, according to the official information of Hyundai Motor, recently, during the 19th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition, Hyundai Motor · Kia and Baidu Apollo officially reached a strategic cooperation on GEN1 China OEM platform & brand cooperation.

 

According to the cooperation agreement, the two sides will further give full play to their respective advantages, accelerate the cooperative development and application of automotive intelligent upgrading and brand digital transformation, and promote the implementation of new products based on GEN1 China OEM platform.

 

 

Kia zhipao ace mass production vehicles, which will be fully dressed at the 2021 Shanghai auto show, will take the lead in carrying GEN1 China OEM platform. In the future, Hyundai Motor · Kia will launch more new mass production vehicles equipped with the latest intelligent on-board interconnection system. At the same time, Hyundai Motor · Kia and Baidu Apollo will actively promote the in-depth cooperation between the two sides in cloud, automatic driving, safety and other fields.

 

It is understood that as early as 2014, Hyundai Motor Group established a cooperative relationship with Baidu, and reached a number of cooperation expansion agreements in the next seven years, jointly launching an intelligent car service platform for the models of Hyundai Motor Group. In 2015, Hyundai Motor · Kia cooperated with Baidu to take the lead in carrying the mobile phone intelligent Internet product “Baidu carlife” on the models of Hyundai Motor · Kia in the Chinese market.

 

“Baidu carlife” can connect smart phones with vehicles, and customers can easily use navigation system, phone, SMS, music and other functions by using the display screen in the vehicle. After that, the smart phone navigation system “Baidu mapauto”, the conversational voice recognition system “dueros Auto”, baidu intelligent network 3.0, BLUElink remote control and other leading vehicle intelligent interconnection functions were first applied in the models of Hyundai Motor · Kia.

 

LG and GM will jointly develop 50cm long lithium battery, which can improve the endurance of electric vehicles by 10%

 

On April 25, according to foreign media reports, the Korean company LG energy will jointly develop a new type of lithium battery with a length of 50cm with general motors. This battery can reduce the processing difficulty of electric vehicle battery pack, shorten the traditional three column arrangement to two columns, and increase the energy density at the same time.

 

GM said that its ultium pure electric platform will use 12 modules composed of such batteries, and the endurance can be increased by 10%.

 

It is reported that the new lithium battery developed by LG will use NCMA cathode materials, including nickel, cobalt, manganese and aluminum, of which nickel will account for more than 80% by mass. This battery will save the cost of electric vehicles, improve the energy density, and make the design and development of vehicles easier. GM will apply this 50cm lithium battery to Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC SUV and other models in the future.

 

It is understood that the manufacturing process of the new battery will also upgrade the previous Z-shaped electrode stacking process. Using single-chip stacking, the manufacturing process is simpler and the production efficiency is higher. Earlier, LG and General Motors announced that they would spend 2.7 billion won (about 15.7277 million yuan) to build a battery factory in the United States, which will start operation in the second half of 2023.

 

Tesla has been approved to use short range motion sensors in its vehicles


 

On April 25, it was reported that Tesla, an electric vehicle manufacturer, has obtained a license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to use 57-64ghz radar sensors in its vehicles.

 

This license allows the company to install more powerful sensors to monitor the conditions of people in the car, the interior of the car and the environment when suspicious activities occur. In other words, the company plans to use these sensors to help monitor drivers and ensure that they remain alert.

 

It is understood that Tesla requested the Federal Communications Commission to approve a short-range motion sensor, which is a millimeter wave sensor, at the end of July 2020. When this technology is applied to Tesla, the sensor can sense the movements of passengers in the car.

 

Specifically, this sensor will not only prevent children from being left in hot cars, but also strengthen the company’s anti-theft system, providing vehicle security advantages such as detecting broken windows or vehicle intrusion.

 

In addition, Tesla has designed a safer airbag deployment system by installing sensors on the seats. The sensors in these airbags can outline the shape of the passengers on the seats and try to calculate their height and weight.

 

Foreign media said that this millimeter wave sensor is likely to become an integral part of Tesla’s auto drive system.

 



Statement: This article is a comprehensive report by electronic enthusiasts, with reference to onmsft, Kyodo news, chinatelecom.com, Nanfang Daily, redgamingtech, fast technology, voice of Germany, global.com, yidian.com, Huajie Zhikong, Hyundai Motor, financial Associated Press, theelec, techweb, etc. Please indicate the above sources for reprint.

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