Why is indoor 5g so important?
Indoor cellular systems have existed for decades. However, as the era changes from 4G to 5g, it is generally believed that they will become more necessary and widespread.
There are several reasons for these growth expectations. First of all, most of the use of mobile data is carried out indoors, and mobile devices are continuing to grow rapidly and use more data. Cisco’s annual internet report estimates that by 2023, there will be 8.7 billion handheld / personal mobile devices and 4.4 billion machine to machine / Internet of things devices in the world. Cisco predicts that by 2023, there will be 3.6 networking devices per person in the world, 45% of which will be connected through cellular networks and 55% through Wi Fi or wired connections. In North America, in particular, the figure is even higher: an average of 13.4 connected devices / connections per person is expected.
At the same time, the equipment using 1.5GB data per month on average in 2017 is expected to use 9.7gb data per month by 2022. Ericsson’s mobile report estimates that in North America, the average monthly usage of smartphones will increase from about 8.5Gb in 2019 to 45gb in 2025. Considering that 80% of cellular data traffic is estimated to come from indoors, this means that even if indoor traffic is distributed between cellular and Wi Fi, the pressure of indoor network will be greatly increased.
The second reason, especially for operators such as at & T and Verizon, is that the initial spectrum they can use for 5g service has always been high frequency millimeter wave band. Mmwave makes the speed of several thousand megabits possible, but it can’t be realized in a single channel with lower frequency, but this performance is accompanied by high propagation cost. Mmwave has several inherent characteristics that make it difficult to use: one of them is its vulnerability to reflect rather than penetrate the surface, and to be blocked by external building materials (especially low emissivity glass). Similarly, the problem of penetration in buildings is nothing new for cellular systems, but the impact of signal vulnerability is greater, and the signal behavior is different at higher frequencies, so that the outdoor coverage can not be used for indoor public or private networks that need speed. 5g millimeter wave system can provide low delay and high capacity. Some types of indoor systems are required.
The third reason is related to the 5g strategy. While consumer centric 5g applications and devices are clearly part of this strategy, mobile network operators are also keen to sell 5g to a variety of businesses and build deeper relationships with manufacturers, warehousing and logistics providers, transport hubs, commercial real estate / intelligent building owners, healthcare and other vertical markets. Many of them will be implemented in indoor environment. Some of these will be completely private networks, with businesses owning or leasing their own spectrum; some will host a combination of visitor / public use, internal operations, or the Internet of things. High definition video and real-time analysis / video processing come from a team of security cameras, cameras monitoring industrial production lines, or used for distribution, replay and AR / VR experience in large venues, sports and entertainment. These are only part of the high bandwidth requirements that 5g is best supported with multiple access edge computing (MEC).
Many of the services that 5g will support will be business critical, so the network must have enough coverage, capacity and reliability to enable enterprises to rely on them – for this reason, external coverage alone is not enough. Like Caroline, chief analyst at Analysys Mason? As Caroline Gabriel recently wrote, in current and previous generations of wireless networks, outdoor macro network takes precedence over indoor coverage, leading to indoor coverage vulnerabilities and telephone interruptions, “undermining the efforts of many enterprises to implement the mobile priority strategy.” This, in turn, limits operators’ ability to monetize their networks.
“The quality of interior experience in the 5g era can no longer be relegated to a secondary position if it is to meet the needs of enterprises,” Gabriel wrote. “For the first time, operators and enterprises have a strong incentive to invest in the construction of wireless networks to the same extent as outdoor networks For the first time, the network will be deployed in places where the quality of indoor service is as important as the quality of outdoor service, rather than being considered afterwards. “
Editor in charge: Tzh