Digital China is a “Trinity” comprehensive system including digital economy, digital government and digital society. Among them, digital government is the top priority, which will ignite the core engine of a new round of reform and innovation. The guiding opinions of the State Council on accelerating the construction of the national integrated online government service platform issued on July 31, 2018 proposed that the national integrated online government service platform should be fully completed by the end of 2022 to realize “one network”. At present, digital government still faces pain points such as data island, network security, lack of supervision, low efficiency and high cost. Blockchain can provide new solutions for digital government.

Development status and pain points of Digital Government

In the digital age, the traditional government service has begun to transform into “Internet plus” digital government service, and the development of digital government has gone through three stages of iteration. Digital government 1.0 era digitizes government information through web technology, that is, e-government era; In the era of digital government 2.0, government services will be digitized through mobile Internet technology; In the digital government 3.0 era, government organizations will be digitized through emerging technologies such as big data, Internet of things and artificial intelligence. Therefore, digital government is the product of the development of e-government to a higher stage. It is an e-government in the form of data, automation, intelligence and intelligence.

Information sharing is the premise of building digital government. However, there are many problems in the construction of digital government in China for a long time, such as “each doing its own thing, fragmentation, numerous chimneys, information islands”. Due to the consideration of data security, the information island between various government departments in the digital government system is very serious, and data sharing is often difficult to promote in reality. The biggest difficulty lies in that as a natural centralized management organization, government departments can not accept completely decentralized business processes. Therefore, at present, in the field of government data sharing, there are many pain points, such as inconsistent service entrance, imperfect platform function, asynchronous Internet access, inaccurate service information and so on.

In addition, the safe and reliable circulation of data is another test faced by the development of digital government. First, electronic data is easy to be tampered with and has no time identification, so its integrity and authenticity urgently need reliable technical verification means; Second, the cost of copying electronic data is almost zero, which makes electronic data easy to leak. Compared with traditional carriers, the Internet indirectly increases the risk of electronic data leakage; Third, with the rapid development of information technology, digital government is not only satisfied with the private network environment. How to ensure the reliable transmission of data in the untrusted Internet environment is an urgent problem to be solved.

Blockchain brings new opportunities for Digital Government

The characteristics of blockchain, such as decentralization, non tamperability, asymmetric encryption and traceability, just meet the needs of digital government for data flow security and credibility. Build a multi-party trust network through the consensus mechanism, further realize the deep integration of Internet and government affairs, optimize government business processes, and make government affairs truly open, transparent and credible.

Blockchain helps to establish a trust mechanism for data flow. In the traditional centralized database, an entity department is usually responsible for collecting, protecting and sharing information, and the distributed blockchain node can help each department verify the authenticity and originality of data in the process of data transmission without relying on a third party, so as to ensure the credibility of data transmission. At the same time, blockchain can create trusted information audit trail, record the location, purpose and visitors of data in real time, greatly improve the transparency of data processing and process, prevent the abuse or forgery of information in the government environment, and realize effective supervision.

Blockchain can improve service efficiency and reduce the operation cost of information system. The blockchain pre stipulates the automatic data processing process through the smart contract, which is conducive to improving the work efficiency in the network data interaction. Its automatic distributed structure can not only save data processing cost and reduce operation burden, but also improve the robustness of the system. The business data synchronization of each department does not need to be redundantly copied to the centralized data exchange system, which not only reduces the workload of each department, but also protects the data privacy between departments before the specific cross department business occurs, but also reduces the maintenance burden of the information service center on the centralized system.

Blockchain synchronization enables information sharing and data privacy protection. Build relevant departmental alliances through blockchain, use the credibility of blockchain data to realize data sharing, and use blockchain encryption to ensure privacy and security, so as to realize the comprehensive collection of data and the separation of rights and responsibilities. According to the design method of the system, the administrator can develop complex licensing schemes, control who can access which types of information, who can share which information, etc. with the participation of multiple parties, that is, allow the government departments to independently authorize the visitors and access data, so as to realize data encryption, control and real-time sharing.

区块链在数字政务领域的应用

作为我国区块链落地的重点示范高地,政务民生领域的相关应用落地集中开始于2018年,多个省市地区积极通过将区块链写进政策规划进行项目探索,主要应用于政府数据共享、电子发票/票据等细分领域。

在政务数据共享领域,区块链技术从真实、安全、平等、高效四个特性出发,利用不可篡改、密码学、分布式、智能合约这四项主要技术,将政务数据共享平台颗粒化和去中心化;将区块链技术运用在“互联网+政务服务”服务平台建设中,完美解决了数据的实时共享、鉴权变更和安全利用之间的矛盾,并实现了数据提交、信息核对、详情查询、评估结果四种数据交互方式,解决了部门之间数据权限的管理和引用问题。例如,2018年10月,广州开发区的“政策公信链”是区块链政策兑现平台,旨在提高政府政策兑现业务处理效率。2019年4月,北京市海淀区推出基于区块链等技术的“不动产登记+用电过户”同步办理的新举措,实现以二手房交易为主题的各项服务的联动办理。

在电子发票/票据领域,基于区块链的去中心化、不可篡改、分布式共享、隐私保护等特性,可以追溯发票的来源、真伪和报销等信息,解决发票流转过程中一票多报、真假难验等难题。具体来说,区块链技术应用于数字发票系统,可以确保电子发票信息在产生和存储过程中的唯一性,实现确权认证;可以实现企业或个人电子发票上的数据信息在产生和存储过程中无法伪造、不可篡改,确保数据真实;可以从技术层面上建立起不同企业、机构和个人各方之间的信任。例如,2018年8月,国家税务总局深圳市税务局主导,腾讯技术支撑的区块链电子发票“税务链”项目上线。2019年6月,浙江省区块链医疗电子票据平台上线,该平台由浙江省财政厅发起,利用蚂蚁区块链技术共同推进,旨在优化用户就医流程。

“区块链+数字政务”面临的挑战

区块链技术作为一项新兴技术,虽然政府也在推行,业内也在探索,但依旧存在着一系列需要思考的现实挑战。

首先,技术水平层面本身不够成熟。区块链技术在系统稳定性、应用安全性、业务模式等方面尚未成熟。从性能上看,无法同时满足“高效率”“去中心化”和“安全”这三个要求,区块链上可进行的交易吞吐量不高,高频次业务需求难以得到满足;从能耗上看,工作量证明等共识算法能源消耗大、成本高,使得区块链浪费大量全网计算力和财力;从生态上看,目前区块链产品不成熟,缺乏相关的开发、集成和运维体系,我国在区块链开源平台上缺少话语权和影响力;从监管上看,加密技术对合法监听、客户识别、反洗钱等监管手段带来不小挑战,同时区块链的多方协同治理也对监管提出更高要求。

其次,业务落地层面基础设施尚未健全。区块链仅能解决技术层面的问题,但在业务落地层面,数字政务的深度应用和广度应用在各个地区之间的发展仍不平衡。所谓广度,体现在可于网络办结的政务事项或环节大幅增加;深度则是指各类政务办理已开始摆脱物理环境的办事大厅窗口,逐步转移到依托电脑或手机等办结。当前,多地部门间的数据交互机制、共享数据库等基础准备还未建立或完善,一定数量的政务服务还未实现网络化电子化升级,部分政务服务即使已经电子化也没有得到大规模应用,App实际注册率不足1%。

再次,行政思维层面需要开拓创新。曾经各部门和机构之间权责不清,各自为主,信息处于封闭状态,不敢分享,也不想分享。数据共享难以真正推进的最大难点在于政府部门作为天然的中心化管理机构,不可能接受完全去中心化的业务流程重塑。人民网曾发表评论:“若想做活政府App,使其真正成为民众生活的助手、公众舆论的容器,功夫在App之外,在于激活运营、管理、制作App的一个个政府部门,激活政府僵化的工作机制,提升政府‘以人为本’的服务意识,根本转变政府职能。”所以,未来“区块链+数字政务”能否真正实现,主要取决于政府是否愿意以及多大程度上愿意接受去中心化改造,告别懒政,升级新的行政思维。

区块链作为一种新技术,为数字政务服务的改革和创新打开了一扇窗。有关部门应该联合区块链企业成立相应的合作推进机制,加强统筹推广步伐,加快相应的技术标准建设。地方政府可以依托国家重大战略,选择典型领域进行应用探索试点,促进地方特色产业发展。技术服务商首先要拥有自己的技术力量,其次要对政府之间的系统、部门和部门之间使用场景有较深入的理解,才能设计出务实的能使用的系统。同时需要注意的是,区块链技术绝不是解决所有问题的方法,需要找到适合的场景才能使其发挥应有的价值。

责任编辑:ct

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