Digital China is a “Trinity” comprehensive system including digital economy, digital government and digital society. Among them, digital government is the top priority, which will ignite the core engine of a new round of reform and innovation. The guiding opinions of the State Council on accelerating the construction of the national integrated online government service platform issued on July 31, 2018 proposed that the national integrated online government service platform should be fully completed by the end of 2022 to realize “one network”. At present, digital government still faces pain points such as data island, network security, lack of supervision, low efficiency and high cost. Blockchain can provide new solutions for digital government.
Development status and pain points of Digital Government
In the digital age, the traditional government service has begun to transform into “Internet plus” digital government service, and the development of digital government has gone through three stages of iteration. Digital government 1.0 era digitizes government information through web technology, that is, e-government era; In the era of digital government 2.0, government services will be digitized through mobile Internet technology; In the digital government 3.0 era, government organizations will be digitized through emerging technologies such as big data, Internet of things and artificial intelligence. Therefore, digital government is the product of the development of e-government to a higher stage. It is an e-government in the form of data, automation, intelligence and intelligence.
Information sharing is the premise of building digital government. However, there are many problems in the construction of digital government in China for a long time, such as “each doing its own thing, fragmentation, numerous chimneys, information islands”. Due to the consideration of data security, the information island between various government departments in the digital government system is very serious, and data sharing is often difficult to promote in reality. The biggest difficulty lies in that as a natural centralized management organization, government departments can not accept completely decentralized business processes. Therefore, at present, in the field of government data sharing, there are many pain points, such as inconsistent service entrance, imperfect platform function, asynchronous Internet access, inaccurate service information and so on.
In addition, the safe and reliable circulation of data is another test faced by the development of digital government. First, electronic data is easy to be tampered with and has no time identification, so its integrity and authenticity urgently need reliable technical verification means; Second, the cost of copying electronic data is almost zero, which makes electronic data easy to leak. Compared with traditional carriers, the Internet indirectly increases the risk of electronic data leakage; Third, with the rapid development of information technology, digital government is not only satisfied with the private network environment. How to ensure the reliable transmission of data in the untrusted Internet environment is an urgent problem to be solved.
Blockchain brings new opportunities for Digital Government
The characteristics of blockchain, such as decentralization, non tamperability, asymmetric encryption and traceability, just meet the needs of digital government for data flow security and credibility. Build a multi-party trust network through the consensus mechanism, further realize the deep integration of Internet and government affairs, optimize government business processes, and make government affairs truly open, transparent and credible.
Blockchain helps to establish a trust mechanism for data flow. In the traditional centralized database, an entity department is usually responsible for collecting, protecting and sharing information, and the distributed blockchain node can help each department verify the authenticity and originality of data in the process of data transmission without relying on a third party, so as to ensure the credibility of data transmission. At the same time, blockchain can create trusted information audit trail, record the location, purpose and visitors of data in real time, greatly improve the transparency of data processing and process, prevent the abuse or forgery of information in the government environment, and realize effective supervision.
Blockchain can improve service efficiency and reduce the operation cost of information system. The blockchain pre stipulates the automatic data processing process through the smart contract, which is conducive to improving the work efficiency in the network data interaction. Its automatic distributed structure can not only save data processing cost and reduce operation burden, but also improve the robustness of the system. The business data synchronization of each department does not need to be redundantly copied to the centralized data exchange system, which not only reduces the workload of each department, but also protects the data privacy between departments before the specific cross department business occurs, but also reduces the maintenance burden of the information service center on the centralized system.
Blockchain synchronization enables information sharing and data privacy protection. Build relevant departmental alliances through blockchain, use the credibility of blockchain data to realize data sharing, and use blockchain encryption to ensure privacy and security, so as to realize the comprehensive collection of data and the separation of rights and responsibilities. According to the design method of the system, the administrator can develop complex licensing schemes, control who can access which types of information, who can share which information, etc. with the participation of multiple parties, that is, allow the government departments to independently authorize the visitors and access data, so as to realize data encryption, control and real-time sharing.