What are the categories of bionic robots

According to the different use environment, the robot can be divided into underwater bionic robot, aerial bionic robot and ground bionic robot.

Underwater Bionic Robot is a new type of high-speed, low-noise, flexible flexible flexible underwater vehicle which imitates some characteristics of fish or other aquatic organisms. The efficiency of these fish like thrusters can reach 70% to 90%. For example, robotic fish, robotic crab and so on. Due to the limited range and ability of a single Underwater Bionic Robot, the group bionic underwater robot system with high mobility, high flexibility, high efficiency and high cooperation will be the development trend in the future.

Aerial bionic robot is an unmanned aircraft with autonomous navigation ability. Aerial robot has its unique advantages. For example, they have a wide space to move, they move very fast, they can fly in the air without being affected by the terrain, and so on. The application prospect of this kind of robot is very good, especially in military applications.

According to the different ways of walking, the ground bionic robot can be divided into jumping robot, wheeled robot, foot robot and crawling robot. For example, “wabian” of Waseda University, uniroo jointly developed by raibert and zeglin and KenKen developed by Hyon have been able to jump successfully, as well as snake like robots or gecko like robots.

In the bionic robot, people attach great importance to the research and development of humanoid robot. The most important feature of humanoid robot is that it can walk on two feet, and walking upright on both legs is a unique way of human walking. Humanoid robot is mainly the basic operation functions of humanoid, humanoid walking and grasping. It integrates multi-disciplinary knowledge and a number of high-tech, representing the cutting-edge technology of robot.

Humanoid robot has a strong ability to adapt to the environment, low energy consumption, and it is easy to work with people. However, due to its own characteristics, the research of humanoid robot still has a long way to go. The research of humanoid robot involves many aspects, such as mechanism, material science, computer technology, control technology, sensor technology, communication technology and so on.

Research status of bionic robot

The emergence of bionic robot well reflects the concept of bionic application. As shown in Figure 1, humans are the first to explore land surface bionic robots, such as the Mu Niu Liu MA in the Three Kingdoms period and the mechanical horse designed by rygg in 1893; Secondly, we explored the bionic robot in the air, and designed the flapping wing aircraft by imitating the flight of birds. The flapping wing aircraft drawing designed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1485 was the first design in accordance with the technical regulations in the world; Finally, it is the exploration of Underwater Bionic Robot. Throughout the development of bionic robot, it has experienced three stages so far. The first stage is the primitive exploration period, which is mainly the primitive imitation of biological prototype, such as the primitive aircraft, simulating the flutter of bird wings, and this stage is mainly driven by human power. By the middle and late 20th century, due to the emergence of computer technology and the innovation of driving device, bionic robot has entered the second stage, macro profiling and motion bionics. In this stage, the mechanical and electrical system is mainly used to realize biological functions such as walking, jumping and flying, and a certain degree of human control is realized. In the 21st century, with the deepening of human understanding of the functional characteristics and formation mechanism of biological system, and the development of computer technology, bionic robot has entered the third stage. Electromechanical system has begun to be partially integrated with biological performance, such as the integration of traditional structure and bionic materials, and the application of bionic driving. At present, with the in-depth understanding of biological mechanism and the development of intelligent control technology, bionic robot is developing towards the fourth stage, which is a life like system integrating structure and biological characteristics. It emphasizes that bionic robot not only has the morphological characteristics and movement mode of biology, but also has the performance characteristics of self perception and self-control of biology, which is closer to the biological prototype. For example, with the in-depth study of human brain and nervous system, bionic brain and neural system control has become the forefront of scientists in this field.

In recent 30 years, with the support of NSFC, bionic research in China has gone through three stages: tracking foreign research, imitating foreign achievements and advancing in local fields. For example, Professor Sun Mao of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics studied the aerodynamic characteristics of a model insect wing in unsteady motion by using numerical solution of Navier Stokes equation and eddy dynamics theory, explained the mechanism of high lift generated by insects, provided theoretical basis for the design of micro bionic flapping wing aircraft, and occupied a place in the international research of flapping wing flight mechanism. The human like five finger dexterous hand developed by Professor Liu Hong of Harbin Institute of technology can move flexibly and grasp objects. Its technical index is equivalent to that of similar foreign products.

Today, there are many kinds of bionic robots. This paper mainly introduces and analyzes some typical research work in the field of land bionic robot, air bionic robot and underwater bionic robot.

Land surface bionic robot

In nature, there are many kinds of movement modes of terrestrial organisms, including bipedal movement mode, such as human; There are many ways of crawling, such as dog, gecko, etc; Whether there is foot movement, such as snakes; There are jumping ways, such as kangaroo, frog, locust and so on. Inspired by the organizational structure and operation mode of these organisms, researchers have carried out the research of land surface bionic robot. There are mainly humanoid robot, bionic multi legged mobile robot, bionic snake robot and bionic jumping robot.

Humanoid robot

Humanoid robot is a kind of intelligent robot which has the characteristics of human beings to a certain extent and has the functions of movement, perception, operation, learning, associative memory, emotional communication and so on. It can adapt to human life

Living and working environment. This is a highly difficult research direction integrating mechanical electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, sensing and driving technology and other disciplines. It is a research platform for all kinds of new control theory and engineering technology, and also one of the challenging problems in the current research of bionic robot technology. The research of humanoid robot can promote the development of bionics, artificial intelligence, computer science, material science and other related disciplines, so it has important research value and significance., After decades of development, humanoid robot has developed from the initial unit function realization, which only imitates human walking, to the low intelligence system which can initially perceive the external environment, and then to the personification and high intelligence system which integrates vision, touch and other technologies and can adjust itself according to the changes of the external environment to complete a number of complex tasks.

The development of humanoid robot began with the biped walking robot in the late 1960s. Waseda University of Japan first started the research work in this area, and developed WAP, WL and wabot

The series of robots can realize the basic walking function. During this period, a number of institutions in Japan, the United States, the European Union, South Korea and other countries have carried out the research and exploration of humanoid robots, and made many breakthroughs. For example, Dr. Zheng Yuanfang, a Chinese American, developed the first biped robot SD-1 and its improved version SD-2 in the United States in 1986.

This stage mainly focuses on the realization of robot walking function, and can achieve a certain degree of control. In the 21st century, with the development of sensing and intelligent control technology, humanoid robot has a certain perception system, which can obtain simple information of the external environment, make simple judgments and adjust their actions accordingly, making the movement more continuous and smooth. For example, the humanoid robot “asmio2000” developed by Honda in 2000 not only has the appearance of human beings, but also can predict the next action and change the center of gravity in advance. Therefore, the walking action when turning is continuous and smooth, and can walk freely. It is the first humanoid robot with world influence. Sony’s “Qrio” robot launched in 2003 realized the running of humanoid robot for the first time. Since then, France’s “bip2000” robot, Sony’s “SDR” series robot, Japan’s JVC company’s “4” robot and South Korea’s “Hubo” robot have realized complex movements such as standing, going up and down stairs, running and doing exercises. With the development of control theory and the progress of control technology, humanoid robot has stronger intelligence, can achieve more complex action, more stable operation, and can automatically determine the appropriate action according to the change of environment and its own judgment results. For example, “asimo2011” robot released by Honda in 2011 integrates visual and tactile object recognition technology, which can carry out meticulous operations, such as picking up a bottle, unscrewing the cap, injecting liquid into a soft paper cup, etc. it can also perform corresponding actions according to human voice, gesture and other instructions. In addition, it also has basic memory and recognition ability.

“Atlas” robot developed by Boston power company in 2013 is a representative of the current humanoid robot. In addition to the appearance of humanoid, it also has the simple recognition, judgment and decision-making functions of human beings. It is a highly intelligent humanoid robot. The robot can stride forward on the conveyor belt, avoid the board suddenly appeared on the conveyor belt, jump down from a high place and land steadily, walk through the trap with two legs apart, stand on one leg, and be hit by the ball from the side without falling down.

Another military robot “PETMAN” developed by the company, which is used to test the performance of the protective clothing of the US Army, has not only higher flexibility, but also the ability to regulate its own body temperature, humidity and perspiration to simulate the self-protection function in human physiology, which has the physiological characteristics of human beings to a certain extent.

Another research direction of humanoid robot is the research of humanoid arm and dexterous finger. From the initial appearance profiling and simple movement stage, it has developed into an electromechanical system which integrates motion perception and can realize the micro operation like hand grasping. “Belgrade” designed by tomovic of the University of California in 1962 for typhoid patients is considered to be the first dexterous hand in the world, which can only achieve simple movements. “Stanford / JPL”, designed by Salisbury in 1982, is a hand like robot, which first fully introduces the sensing functions of position, touch, force, etc., creating a precedent for the actual grasping operation of multi fingered hand. It is a representative manipulator at that time and even now. Since then, the manipulator has developed towards a more flexible and intelligent direction. The “Hassy” robot arm developed by DLR of German Aerospace Center in 2010 has a total of 21 degrees of freedom. It is the first multi fingered dexterous hand designed with bionic joints. The movement of finger joints imitates the face contact sliding rather than simple rotation of human hands, making its movement characteristics closer to human fingers

The research of humanoid robot in China started late, and the “pioneer” developed by the University of national defense science and technology in 2000 is the first humanoid robot in China. After that, BHR, a humanoid robot developed by Beijing University of technology in 2002, broke through the system integration technology, realized walking without external cables, could walk stably on unknown ground, and could perform complex movements such as Taijiquan. The “hit” series biped walking robot developed by Harbin Institute of technology realizes the walking of static and dynamic gait, and can complete the forward / backward, side, turn, up and down steps, up and down slope and other actions. The humanoid robot “thbip” developed by Tsinghua University adopts a unique transmission structure, which successfully realizes continuous and stable walking without cable, continuous walking up and down steps, water carrying, Taijiquan and nodding. Huitong 5 humanoid robot, developed by Beijing University of technology in 2011, represents the highest level of humanoid robot in China. It has the functions of vision, voice dialogue, force sense and balance sense. It has broken through the key technologies of dexterous motion control based on high-speed vision and whole-body coordinated autonomous response, and has become a robot master with “superb” movement ability, Zhejiang University has also developed a humanoid robot, which improves the robot’s ability to deal with complex situations through the method of trajectory prediction, and realizes the movement of the robot playing table tennis.

In the research of humanoid arm and dexterous finger, the research of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics was carried out earlier. In 1993, the first three fingered hand “buaa-i” in China was successfully developed, and then the improved versions of “buaa-ii” and “buaa-iii” three fingered hand came out one after another. Since 2005, Shanghai Jiaotong University has carried out the research on the operation of the robot arm based on EEG, focusing on how to improve the operation function and dexterity of the prosthetic hand, and developing a more advanced biological / mechanical system interface. On this basis, a new generation of prosthetic hand with the function of “imitating human hand” has been developed. Hit / dlrhand, a human like five finger dexterous hand jointly developed by Harbin Institute of technology and DLR of Germany, has multi perception ability, flexible movement, humanoid grasping process, and can complete most of the hand grasping functions such as forward pinching, three finger pinching and cylindrical grasping. At present, the research of humanoid robot has made breakthroughs in many aspects, such as key mechanical units, overall motion, dynamic vision and so on, but it is far from the dexterity of human motion and the autonomy of control. The ultimate development goal of humanoid robot is not only to imitate human in shape and movement mode, but also to be close to human in thinking mode and behavior mode. It can continuously acquire new knowledge through interaction with environment, complete various tasks independently, and adapt to structured or unstructured dynamic environment by itself.

Bionic multi legged mobile robot the inspiration of bionic multi legged mobile robot comes from the nature

Reptiles. Inspired by reptiles such as dogs, geckos, crabs and cockroaches, the researchers carried out structural imitation design. Because of its good terrain adaptability, it has been a very active research field in the past 20 years and has attracted the attention of various research institutions in the world. After decades of exploration the first mock exam of bionic mobile robot has developed greatly from single imitation biological mobile to intelligent robot with good environmental perception and closer to biological prototype mobile robot.

In the mid-1960s, general electric company developed a four legged walking robot “Mosher”, which adopts the method of human control to simulate four legged biological walking, which is a milestone in the development history of bionic multi legged mobile robot technology. Since then, with the progress of computer technology, robots that can control the movement independently have appeared one after another. For example, the “Titan” series quadruped walking robot developed by Tokyo University of technology in Japan has a variety of motion gait and can walk on the inclined stairs. “BigDog” robot developed by Boston power company in 2008 is a representative of multi legged robot. It has environmental perception, good adaptability and good balance. Even if the side is impacted by an object, it can quickly restore balance by adjusting gait. It can climb hillsides, cross snow, walk on gravel roads, go up and down stairs, walk on smooth ice, and even jump across the horizontal bar. It can be used for military transportation. The “cheetah” robot developed by the company in 2013 can sprint, swerve and stop suddenly, which is close to the bio prototype movement. Its running speed can reach up to 46km / h, which is the fastest bionic multi legged mobile robot at present.

Some scholars have developed bionic multi legged robot based on the crawling mechanism of insects. The cricket like crawling robot developed by Case Western Reserve University is a representative of bionic insect robots. It can walk and jump in a certain range, adapt to rough terrain, and run, turn and avoid obstacles flexibly.

With the support of DARPA, McGill University, University of Michigan, University of California, Berkeley, Carnegie Mellon University and other institutions in Canada have developed the “rhex” series legged robots, which have six and a half arc “elastic legs”, and can easily realize fast driving, jumping, flying, overturning and climbing. The researchers also developed a wall climbing robot inspired by gecko’s ability to walk on vertical walls.

Editor in charge: yyx

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