With the development of the times and the progress of science and technology, biometric technology has been more and more widely used in government, military, banking, social welfare, e-commerce, security and other fields. Compared with traditional password or pattern authentication, biometric technology is more secure, reliable, accurate and convenient. Therefore, the biometric technology industry has developed rapidly and has an extremely broad prospect.

Biometric identification refers to the technology of personal identification by using the inherent physiological characteristics of human body through the close combination of computer and high-tech means such as optics, acoustics, biosensors and biostatistics. It mainly includes fingerprint recognition, face recognition, iris recognition and other technologies.

The development of biometric technology has experienced two generations of evolution: the first generation of biometric technology is body surface information recognition, such as fingerprint, palmprint, face, iris and so on; The second generation biometric technology uses the information in the body for recognition, which is the shape and feature of the body that can not be seen by human flesh eyes. For example, vein recognition. Compared with the first generation biometric technology, vein is known as the world’s top biometric technology in the industry because of its advantages of in vivo authentication, high anti-counterfeiting and non replication.

Next, we will introduce the categories of biometrics and their advantages and disadvantages.

Firstly, the most widely used fingerprint identification technology is introduced. Because human fingerprints are produced by the joint action of heredity and environment, everyone has fingerprints, but they are different. Fingerprint identification technology extracts feature values by analyzing the global features and partial features of fingerprint, and analyzing the combination of ridge and valley. Fingerprint identification has a long research history, very mature technology, low cost, and the fingerprint identification module is relatively small. At present, it occupies more than half of the biometric authentication. At present, it has been applied in many fields such as locks, attendance, access control, computers, banks and safes, smart phones and so on. However, fingerprint identification is physical contact, invasive, and the fingerprint is easy to wear. For individuals, fingerprint extraction is more difficult. In addition, when the fingers are stained with water or oil, the success rate of fingerprint recognition will be greatly reduced. The existing fingerprint recognition technologies can not solve the problem of reducing the recognition rate of wet hands. The above factors limit the future development of fingerprint identification.

The second biometric technology is face recognition technology, which is a biometric technology for identity recognition based on human face feature information. Compared with fingerprint recognition technology, face recognition has higher accuracy, belongs to non-contact recognition technology, and the operation is more convenient and fast. In terms of promotion, at present, ordinary cameras can be used as sensors. Face recognition mainly depends on face recognition software and algorithms. Ordinary cameras can be used as sensors to collect face information. The promotion cost is relatively low and customers can easily accept it. Based on the above characteristics, face recognition will replace fingerprint recognition and usher in rapid development in the next stage of biometric industry. However, face recognition also has certain potential safety hazards. Firstly, the differences between different individuals are not great, and even some people look very similar, resulting in the reduction of recognition accuracy. Secondly, the instability of human face. Human face can have many expressions, and there will be great differences in different angles. In addition, there are lighting conditions and age, Photography posture and other factors.

In addition to face recognition, iris recognition also has good development potential in the future. Iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies at present. It has the characteristics of low error rate, difficult to forge, difficult to copy and difficult to damage biometrics. In theory, it will be more accurate and reliable than fingerprint recognition and face recognition. Based on the above characteristics, iris recognition technology will be the focus of future applications in security, national defense, e-commerce and other fields. However, iris recognition has high requirements for image acquisition equipment and its lighting source, and the cost remains high. At present, it is difficult to popularize it on a large scale on portable terminals.

In addition to the above, a new biometric technology, vein recognition technology, has been developed in recent years. It uses the characteristic that hemoglobin in blood absorbs infrared rays. When near-infrared light shines on fingers or palms, hemoglobin in subcutaneous veins of fingers or palms has a higher absorption rate of near-infrared light than skin, muscles and other physiological tissues, Therefore, the image mode with sharp black-and-white contrast is presented. At present, vein recognition is mainly divided into finger vein recognition and palm vein recognition, and their principles are basically the same. Vein recognition is the most secure biometric technology known at present, and it belongs to in vivo recognition, which will not be affected by rough skin and external environment. In addition, vein recognition can also be recognized in a non-contact way. However, vein recognition is a new technology. Its front-end acquisition must use special equipment. The equipment is expensive and difficult to realize miniaturization, which greatly limits the market application of vein recognition.

With the continuous progress of science and technology, biometric technology will be further improved and improved to better serve people’s work and life, and biometric technology industry will also flourish.

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