With the increasing application of servers and data centers around the world, the demand for stable and efficient power supply is becoming stronger and stronger to cope with the increasing power consumption. Power consumption has been growing rapidly, so more integrated central processing units, graphics processing units and accelerators are needed to improve the computing speed of servers and data centers. The improvement of application efficiency has led to the development of power supply unit (PSU) to provide high energy efficiency, fast transient response, high power density and larger power capacity.

High energy efficiency

The server PSU with high energy efficiency can reduce the cost of operating the data center and its impact on the environment by reducing power consumption and greatly improving the power transmission efficiency from power supply to load. This capability enables data centers to meet increasingly stringent energy efficiency standards (such as 80 plus), achieve above average titanium energy efficiency in various load ranges, and emit less carbon dioxide to the environment.

Fast transient response

In server power applications, fast transient response helps to achieve stable and reliable system operation under changing load and input transients. In addition, the system needs to meet the more stringent transient response specifications of the server power OEM: 80% to 100% load jump between 2.5a/µ s and 5A / µ s. Figure 1 illustrates these parameters.

  

Figure 1: transient response parameters

Higher power density and greater power capacity

The power consumption of servers and data centers is increasing, so more power capacity is required. By providing greater power capacity in a smaller space, power technologies such as gallium nitride (GAN) can achieve a smaller power supply. In order to achieve high power density and reduce the bill of materials of the whole system in the power supply system, it is very important to use real-time microcontroller (MCU) to control high switching frequency.

Overcome the design challenges of server PSU

To achieve these advantages, server PSU manufacturers face several design challenges, such as

·Realize complex power supply topology, such as Tuteng column bridgeless power factor correction and control algorithm, including zero voltage switching, zero current switching, synchronous rectification timing and inductance inductance capacitance resonant DC / DC conversion with hybrid hysteresis control.

·Enable real-time control performance to speed up the execution of the control loop.

·When broadband gap power devices such as Gan and silicon carbide (SIC) are used, the power consumption is reduced while maintaining a higher switching frequency.

In order to meet the increasing requirements of server PSU system for power efficiency and power density, real-time MCU needs to have several key characteristics, such as low delay signal chain, high pulse width modulation (PWM) flexibility and resolution, high control loop speed and high switching frequency. Figure 2 shows a block diagram of an example PSU.

  

Figure 2: typical dual controller architecture for server power supply with AC / DC and DC / DC stages

TMS320F280039C C2000 ™ Real time MCU provides all the above features and can also help meet or reduce the design budget of server PSU. They will continue to improve the integrated real-time signal chain (sensing, processing and control) through flexible and innovative functions. Figure 3 shows the f28003x series.

  

Figure 3: f28003x MCU extends C2000 real-time MCU product portfolio

High precision detection

F280039c MCU realizes high energy efficiency and fast transient response of server PSU through its integrated analog components (including multiple 4msps analog-to-digital converters with flexible management conversion startup, 11 significant bits and one post-processing block). MCU also integrates fast analog comparator with optimized power control function, such as blanking, delayed tripping, peak current mode control and slope compensation, which can realize accurate power conversion.

High performance processing

F280039c is based on 32-bit digital signal processor architecture and combined with control law accelerator, which can provide real-time performance of more than 240mips. It has the characteristics of floating-point unit and trigonometric function accelerator, can achieve higher power density and high transient response, and can handle complex time-dependent calculations.

Flexible high resolution control

In the high-power server PSU system, even at high frequency, it is very important to achieve greater power capacity and maintain phase synchronization. F280039c provides a PWM channel with a resolution of 150ps. It has the functions of bottom switch, delayed tripping, dead time adjustment and global reload. It can accurately control complex power topology and control algorithm. The integrated configurable logic block further enhances the flexibility of PWM and seamlessly connects Gan technology to achieve high power density.

Other advantages of C2000 real-time MCU in server PSU system

In addition to the trend of power management and fast real-time control, f280039c MCU can also meet several other hot spot requirements of server PSU:

·Real time firmware update can seamlessly switch to new firmware without power interruption, and greatly reduce software overhead through multiple group models with multiple flash options and faster FLASH Group erase time.

·The communication interface is transferred from pmbus to controller area network (can) bus (and possibly can-fd), which can achieve faster speed, higher data rate and reliable host communication.

·Security through encryption features such as advanced encryption standards, secure launch and security joint test action group can protect code and data from external attacks and address industry concerns in this more interconnected world.

epilogue

F280039c MCU is extended on C2000 MCU platform to provide integration function, which can help you realize advanced real-time control and reduce BOM cost. F28003x MCU series realizes higher energy efficiency, higher power density and faster response time by unlocking the full potential of broadband gap technologies such as Gan and SiC. Easy to use software can speed up the development of server PSU designers.

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