At present, the main factor restricting the development of electric vehicles is power battery. Although lithium-ion batteries have high energy density, there are still some short boards for automotive power batteries. Therefore, Toyota also began to find another way to develop fluorine ion solid-state batteries, which can carry larger battery capacity with smaller volume.
Recently, according to foreign media reports, researchers from Toyota and Kyoto University are jointly developing a new generation of battery technology. The energy per unit weight of the new fluorine-ion battery under research is about 7 times that of the traditional lithium-ion battery, which can make the electric vehicle run 1000 kilometers on a single charge.
In addition, the R & D team has developed a prototype of rechargeable solid-state battery based on fluorine. The battery prototype has a higher theoretical energy density, which can make its life seven times longer than the current lithium-ion battery.
The working principle of the battery is to transfer fluorine ions from one electrode to another to generate electricity through fluorine ion conductive electrolyte. The anode or negative charge electrode is composed of fluorine, copper and cobalt, while the cathode or positive charge electrode is mainly composed of lanthanum.
In addition, researchers use solid electrolyte to replace the liquid electrolyte commonly used in lithium-ion batteries. The biggest advantage of this solid-state battery is that it will not catch fire. Engineers can focus on increasing the charge and discharge efficiency of the battery without worrying about overheating or spontaneous combustion.
However, the fluorine ion battery also faces a big challenge, that is, its intelligence works at high temperature. Only when the solid electrolyte is fully heated, the fluorine ion will move to the polarization electrode, which may lead to the expansion of the battery electrode.
However, the Kyoto University and Toyota research team say they have found a way to prevent electrode expansion, that is, to make electrodes from alloys of cobalt, nickel and copper. However, the actual situation needs subsequent verification.
Although people have more and more hopes for fluorine ion batteries, they will not enter the market for the time being. The prototype of lithium-ion battery was developed in 1985, but it was not commercialized until 1991. The situation faced by fluorine-ion batteries is similar to that of lithium-ion batteries.