Significance and purpose of robot development
The development of intelligent robot is always on the way. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, there was a driving carriage, which can be said to be the earliest driverless car in the world. With the development of modern industry, robots entered the second stage and began to serve industry. In the 20th century, robots entered the third stage, that is, the era of intelligent robots.
When human beings first entered the modern industrial age, they applied robots to the industrial field and used industrial robots to carry out production activities. Due to the extreme shortage of labor force, robots were widely used in Japan, the United States and Germany to replace labor force after World War II. Therefore, industrial robots were developed in these countries in the 1960s after World War II.
With the birth of the robot, it is more and more applied to the automobile manufacturing process. The development of robot technology is now moving towards the goal of industry 4.0. At present, robots are only automatic devices, not real intelligent robots. What we need in the future is real intelligent robots.
Robot is an important tool for manufacturing power, robot can efficiently complete welding, processing, measurement, detection, etc., especially in our country, national major equipment manufacturing, such as aerospace manufacturing and other aspects cannot do without intelligent robot, its indoor use also has a broad prospect. In addition, robots also play a vital role in national livelihood projects. Robots can assist and replace human beings to complete dangerous work links, and can engage in complex, repetitive and time-consuming tasks. They play a great role in large-scale engineering construction, large-scale bridge construction, application maintenance, ocean development, space exploration and intelligent manufacturing. Robot is the infrastructure of national major engineering construction, and it is an important context of the times in the construction of “new infrastructure”.
The most important thing to develop robots is in manufacturing industry. Robots can solve many artificial difficulties and pain points in manufacturing industry, such as aging population, difficulty in recruitment and manufacturing, iterative updating of products, small batch, multi variety manufacturing and so on. At the same time, robots can also effectively solve the problems of labor shortage, aging population and so on.
Development status of robots at home and abroad
Nowadays, all countries in the world are vigorously developing robot technology, such as the robot plan 2.0 of the United States, the industrial plan 4.0 of Germany and the European Union, the made in China 2025 and the robot strategy of Japan, so as to promote robots to march towards high-end manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing and seize the commanding heights.
From the analysis of US strategy 2.0, US strategy 2.0 emphasizes the interaction and cooperation among multiple robots to create robot perception. German industry 4.0 puts more emphasis on Intelligent factories to build an intelligent power, playing the role of robots in intelligent production lines, intelligent workshops and intelligent factories, and integrating robots into production lines through information physics systems. The EU expects to build robot collaboration, emphasizing cooperation among robots and robots and surgical robots for medical treatment and human health.
The development of Chinese robots in the past decade can be divided into two stages. The first five years were basically in the industrial development period, and now it has entered the high-end period. Robot is “the Pearl at the top of the manufacturing crown”. Its R & D, manufacturing and application are important symbols to measure a country’s scientific and technological innovation and high-end manufacturing level. We should improve the level of robot in China. Therefore, our country needs to improve the national robot industry, occupy more markets, and develop robot technology and industry has become a major strategic demand of our country. The release of “made in China 2025” and “new generation artificial intelligence development planning outline” is to promote the development of intelligent robots and serve the national economy, major national strategies and major national projects. Around the development of robots, local governments and local governments have issued many policies, including Shenzhen City, which has made great efforts in the field of service robots.
Key technologies of intelligent robot
Robot is a kind of mechanical device that can automatically perform operations or mobile operations. It has the functions of perception, planning, decision-making, control and so on. It can complete tasks that are difficult for human beings to complete and work in repetitive, boring, dangerous or harsh environments.
No matter how complex the robot is, no matter what type of robot it is, it is an automatic system with perception system, decision system and control system. The key technology of robot is mainly composed of four parts: ontology, perception, decision-making and execution technology. The robot is a feedback control system of perception, decision and execution.
Robotics also covers many interdisciplinary subjects, such as mechanical engineering, artificial intelligence, control science, computer, electronics, materials and interdisciplinary integration. Robots are ubiquitous today, and are widely used in manufacturing, logistics, medical industry, human life services, marine, aviation, aerospace and other fields. They also play a great role in automobile manufacturing and electronic manufacturing.
The future development direction of robot
In the equipment manufacturing industry, the construction of large-scale complex systems, such as aerospace manufacturing, also requires multi robot collaborative assembly. In addition, space robots such as lunar exploration robots have also developed rapidly in the past two years, because all countries are competing for space resources. There are also marine robots used for ocean assistance, salvage, underwater exploration, etc., and scientific research robots used for scientific and technological investigation in harsh environments, such as climbing Mount Everest, which can be carried out by robots in the future.
After the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020, the medical robot will also become the main direction of robot development in the future. For example, the development of thermo diagnosis intelligent robot, intelligent disinfection robot, medical material handling intelligent robot and other epidemic prevention and control robots, assisted robots and epidemic prevention robots. Brain computer interface robot is one of the top ten robot hot issues, military robot and special operation robot are also the major development direction in the future.
Among the top ten challenges and directions of robotics published by science magazine, intelligent robot is the most important one, including brain computer interface, social interaction, medical treatment, multi machine group and so on. Intelligent robot has two characteristics of network and interaction, which embody the intelligent autonomous sensing function. Robot must have five elements: perception, planning, decision-making, movement and self-learning. Among them, intelligent perception, intelligent cooperative planning and intelligent precise control are the three core technologies of robot.
In the aspect of robot intelligent perception. It is very important to design a complete robot visual perception system and build a micro sensing, high intelligent sensing and control integrated chip, which also has a lot of work to do. It will have a profound impact on the application of robot 3D recognition, slam technology and robot measurement.
In robot control technology. Compliant control, intelligent control and multi robot cooperative control of robots are the current research hotspots. The robot control technology based on deep learning and reinforcement learning is embodied in its application. Task allocation, precise configuration of complex tasks, network control and control flexibility, and ensuring the orderly work of the system in the case of resisting network attacks are all the research contents of robot control technology.
In addition to intelligent sensing and intelligent control, robot also needs stable and effective joints, which are the key components of its actuator. In order to complete complex tasks, robots also need dexterous hands. Whether it is medical, industrial, aerospace, or marine robots, they have to use hands to complete complex tasks. Therefore, dexterous hands are the fourth key technology of robots.
Based on the four technologies, robots can be integrated and innovated to form robot system applications. Industrial robots, service robots and special operation robots can be built and applied to different fields. It is the future development direction to design the cooperative, scheduling and flexible automatic production line of robots, to apply machine vision in the pharmaceutical and beverage industries, and to use robots to replace manual labor in some processes of automobile manufacturing and electronic assembly.
At present, the robot is still in the stage of industrial 1.0 and 2.0. In the future, the robot should be robot 3.0. In addition to the current functions, it should also have the functions of emotional interaction, human-computer cooperation, self-learning, human-computer interaction, semantic analysis and natural language understanding. Only in this way can it really become an intelligent service robot. In the future, the robot is expected to develop into an autonomous service machine People, advanced to 4.0. A lot of work needs to be done. AI technology, perception ability, memory ability, learning ability and decision-making ability need to be organically incorporated into the robot to make the robot have an intelligent and autonomous network control system and form a robot market. Artificial intelligence is the key to the development of robot. The three core technologies of artificial intelligence, perception technology, cognitive technology and behavior control technology, determine the future of intelligent robot.
In the future, the application of robots will be oriented to network collaborative manufacturing, based on flexible automatic production line for small batch, multi variety and personalized manufacturing. It needs to have the characteristics of digitalization, networking and intellectualization, intelligent manufacturing under the industrial Internet architecture, and form the whole process intelligent manufacturing from product design, R & D, manufacturing to service. Networked collaborative manufacturing can meet the personalized production and service mode, as well as the complex and changeable working environment and tasks, which is the development trend of intelligent production in the future. Robots will play an important role in it.
Under the background of 5g coming, in the cloud space with improved communication speed, broadband and reduced delay, it is also the dream of the future city to build a new generation of intelligent networked electric vehicles, intelligent unmanned aerial vehicles and intelligent Networked Electric Vehicles by using 5g technology, that is, to build intelligent networked, unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned docks and airports.
Human computer interaction is also a very important development direction. Human computer cooperation mode deeply combines human advantages (intelligence and dexterity) with robot advantages (high speed and high precision), realizes human-computer flexible operation, and solves the problems of high deployment cost and insufficient flexibility of robot. There are extremely important application scenarios in industry, agriculture or precision medicine. It is a strong link that organically combines artificial intelligence and robot, including language recognition, object recognition, semantic understanding, emotion analysis, intention understanding and decision-making level with multimodal interaction, gait recognition and interaction.
The future robot development must be networked, autonomous, collaborative and smart. At the same time, the robot development needs a well planned executable strategy, an innovative environment and the standards and technologies of the next generation robot. The most important thing is to focus on cultivating a number of high-level scientific research leaders and industrial talents.
Editor in charge: CC