Looking forward to, looking forward to, R16 version finally came. The R16 version of 5g standard was frozen on July 3. Based on the R15 version frozen in 2018, it has realized the transformation from “usable” to “easy to use”, which has become an important milestone in the 5g commercial process and injected new momentum into 5g commercial. 5g is no longer a rootless tree and a passive water. It will thrive on the basis of deep standards.

“The combination of R15 and R16 will enable 5g to fully accept various application challenges.” Xu Xiaodong, vice chairman of 3GPP ran plenary session and chief expert of China Mobile, said. R16 standard not only enhances the function of 5g, enables 5g to further enter all walks of life and give birth to a new digital ecological industry, but also gives more consideration to factors such as cost, efficiency and efficiency, so as to give greater benefits to communication infrastructure investment and further contribute to the digital transformation of social economy. In the process of promoting 5g standards, Chinese enterprises have actively participated day and night, paid a lot of human and material resources, and actively contributed to the formulation of global 5g standards.

The core content of 5g standard has been completed

It is understood that R15 is the first available standard version of 5g, which has been frozen in 2018 by 3GPP, the international standards organization. In the formulation process, R15 strives to produce the “usable” standard at the fastest speed, meeting the basic functions of 5g in many aspects. The frozen R16 is the first technical standard in the history of 3GPP to be considered and completed through a non face-to-face meeting. It is the crystallization of global industrial unity and cooperation. It has realized the transformation from “available” to “easy to use”, and further enhanced the application ability of 5g to better serve the industry in terms of “new capacity expansion”, “existing capacity tapping potential” and “operation and maintenance cost reduction and efficiency”, The efficiency of 5g is improved.

“R16 is the perfection of 5g ‘capability triangle’.” Sun Tao, vice chairman of 3GPP SA2 working group and director of China Mobile Research Institute, said, “R15 is mainly based on the embB scenario and strives to launch the usable 5g standard at the fastest speed. A major feature of R16 standard is that in addition to embB, it has deployed two important scenarios and capabilities such as urllc and mmtc (Dalian Internet of things), which is equivalent to completing half of the 5g ‘capability triangle’.”

The core content of 5g standard has been completed

For example, for industrial Internet applications, new technologies are introduced to support 1 microsecond synchronization accuracy, 0.5-1 millisecond air interface delay, “six nines” reliability and flexible terminal group management, which can realize end-to-end delay and higher reliability within 5 milliseconds as soon as possible, and provide support for industrial time sensitivity. For Internet of vehicles applications, it supports V2V (vehicle to vehicle) and V2I (vehicle to roadside unit) direct communication. By introducing multiple communication modes such as multicast and broadcasting, as well as optimizing technologies such as perception, scheduling, retransmission and connection quality control in the vehicle workshop, v2x supports richer Internet of vehicles application scenarios such as vehicle formation, semi-automatic driving, extension sensor and remote driving. For industrial applications, a variety of 5g air port positioning technologies are introduced, and the positioning accuracy is increased by more than ten times to reach the meter level. Some basic functions of R15 are continuously enhanced in R16, which significantly improves the cell edge spectrum efficiency and handover performance, and makes the terminal more power-saving.

With regard to the epoch-making significance of the freeze of R16 standard, Lorenzo casaccia, vice president of technical standards of Qualcomm technologies, said that 3GPP completed release 16 of the second edition of 5g standard and significantly expanded 5g to a new service, spectrum and deployment mode. This is an important milestone for the entire mobile industry and the wider ecosystem. The new 5g specification included in rel-16 will open new 5g opportunities in many fields other than traditional mobile broadband services. On the one hand, rel-16 brings higher 5g system performance and efficiency by enhancing the solid technical foundation of rel-15; More importantly, rel-16 also brings key technical support for changing new industries.

At the same time, the freezing of R16 standard will play a huge role in boosting economic development and pry up a trillion market. Dr. Wang Yingmin, deputy chief engineer of China Information Technology Group, deputy general manager and chief engineer of Datang Mobile, believes that with the freezing of rel-16 Standard Version, 5g development is rapidly changing from “policy driven” to “business driven”. Under the “business drive”, 5g will enable the infrastructure construction of thousands of industries, including high-definition / ultra clear video, VR live broadcast, AR interaction, immersive games, etc. based on 5g embB, as well as the Internet of vehicles, industrial Internet, industrial private network (energy / power, etc.) and Internet of things based on urllc / mmtc in the near future. The number of connections will be greatly expanded from billions to tens of billions, This will transform the development of 5g from “business driven” to “business driven” during 2021-2025, leveraging the trillion market mentioned above.

The freezing of R16 standard also plays an important role in improving the performance of terminal equipment. Qin Fei, President of vivo Communication Research Institute, believes that R16 version will further improve the user experience of the terminal in the actual network. For example, the power consumption of the terminal will be further reduced. It is expected to enjoy 5g Super bandwidth and more traffic, which is equivalent to 4G energy consumption. In addition, the frequency band and frequency combination supported by the terminal are richer, the performance of multiple antennas is further improved, the peak rate is improved, and the mobility and anti occlusion robustness in millimeter wave scenes are improved.

China’s strength braves the wind and waves

In the process of formulating 5g standards, Chinese forces have continuously expanded their voice in communication standards, and Chinese enterprises have made important contributions to the freezing of standards. It is understood that China’s submission of 3GPP international manuscripts on 5g standards has exceeded 35% of the global total. Chinese enterprises such as Huawei and ZTE rank among the top 10 in the world, and the number of SEP in China accounts for 33% of the world; At the same time, China’s key positions in international organizations have increased significantly. All this means that China has made an important contribution to the standardization of global mobile communications.

China Mobile continued to play the main role in R16 standardization, submitted more than 3000 technical proposals, accounting for more than 30% of the total number of global operator proposals, and led the formulation of 15 technical standards, including wireless data acquisition and application aimed at cost reduction and efficiency enhancement, service-oriented architecture framework and interface enhancement, remote station interference elimination for atmospheric waveguide, high-speed rail scene performance improvement Service quality assurance management, asynchronous carrier aggregation to increase deployment flexibility, virtualization strategy management improvement, high-power terminal technology to improve uplink coverage, security capability, service opening, etc.

In the 3GPP R16 standard, China Telecom led the formulation of 10 technical standards, including key standard areas such as non-public network networking, mobility enhancement, 5g performance index definition and enhancement. Within the R16 standard cycle, in 3GPP ran, the number of projects led by China Telecom ranked first among global operators, and the number of proposals submitted ranked third among global operators.

China Unicom continued to play an important role in R16 standardization, submitted more than 1000 technical proposals, and led the formulation of six technical standards, including NR 2.1GHz large bandwidth, voice service continuity from 5g to 3G, fdd-tdd dual connection high-power terminal, 4G and 5g base station consistency architecture, etc. Among them, the project of 2.1GHz large bandwidth leads the development of 5g co construction and sharing global industrial chain; The high-power terminal makes up for the 5g uplink coverage short board and completes the high-power terminal involving FDD band for the first time.

Datang Mobile has input more than 4000 manuscripts in the process of rel-16 standard formulation, and led 10 rel-16 projects in each working group of access network and core network as ts24 515 and other editors of four rel-16 technical standards. It has made important contributions in the technical fields of large-scale antenna enhancement, urllc, Internet of vehicles, terminal energy saving, positioning technology research, mobility enhancement, terminal direct connection, industrial Internet, network self optimization and minimization of road test. Experts from Datang Mobile served as the chairman of 5g technology evaluation team at ITU-R, vice chairman of CT and vice chairman of 3GPP ran5 at 3GPP, and more than ten standard experts served as editors of 3GPP 5g technical standards and speakers of important issues.

As a representative enterprise of domestic mobile phone manufacturers, oppo has contributed a lot to the standardization of 5g evolution Version (release 16). It involves multiple technical features such as multi antenna, terminal energy saving, two-step random access, industrial Internet of things, license free frequency band, Internet of vehicles, carrier aggregation / dual connection enhancement, mobility enhancement and so on. It plays an important role in multi antenna technology, industrial Internet of things, Internet of vehicles and other terminal related technical fields, In the 5g evolution Version (release 16), he jointly led the research on MIMO OTA technology concerned by the terminal and successfully transformed it into a standardization work project. It is reported that in the whole 5g evolution version, oppo has output more than 1500 manuscripts, which has made outstanding contributions to the 5g industry.

Vivo, as a representative enterprise of Chinese mobile phone manufacturers, has also done a lot of work and preparation in the freezing process of R16 standard. Among them, vivo submitted more than 2000 technical proposals in R16 and put forward a large number of important technical features and key problem solutions in ran, SA and CT groups, which were recognized and passed by the industry. The standard experts from vivo led the discussion of many key technical features in the formulation of R16 standard, participated in the editing of standard protocol, and made important sharing for the smooth freezing of standard. Vivo pays attention to the evolution and improvement of terminal technical characteristics, especially makes important contributions to terminal power saving technology, self-interference problem solution in terminal equipment, high-power terminal and so on.

The epidemic situation can not stop the progress of standards

The freezing process of R16 standard is also a portrayal of countless communicators overcoming difficulties and promoting technological progress. R16 is the first technical standard completed through non face-to-face meeting in the history of 3GPP and the crystallization of global industrial unity and cooperation. “Under the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic situation, can guarantee ASN.1 to freeze on time, has condensed 3GPP representative’s countless sleepless nights’ contribution.” Xu Xiaodong said.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia has been challenged by many factors such as trade friction, which leads to the lack of a single point of communication between some companies. The new crown pneumonia epidemic is rampant around the world and can not be held in face-to-face meetings. R16 However, the standard experts from various industries and companies around the world overcame various difficulties and challenges, shelved technical differences with a more constructive attitude, and jointly committed to the standard formulation and development of high-quality 5g evolution technology through high-intensity online meetings, extended meeting time and ultra-high-density e-mail discussions, so as to ensure the arrival of R16 on schedule.

In the face of the global COVID-19 influence, the 3GPP international conference has changed from face-to-face meetings to online electronic conferences. At the same time, the freezing time of Rel-16 version technical standard has been postponed from March 2020 to June 2020. The completion and release of rel-16 standard means that manufacturers can carry out R & D and manufacturing of corresponding products according to this version, further enrich the application scenarios of 5g technology, and further accelerate the process of global 5g network deployment. Meanwhile, 3GPP has launched the research and development of rel-17 technical standard, preliminarily planned the main technical features and schedule of rel-17, and continued to enhance and evolve the existing version of the standard.

According to Yan Binfeng, director of the technical committee of China Unicom Research Institute, at present, 3GPP has made great optimization and improvement in focusing on technical issues, improving conference efficiency and online conference process management, so as to try to ensure that 5g standards can be released on schedule. For the global 5g commercial deployment, since most of the currently deployed 5g network versions are based on the R15 version frozen in June 2019, the standard lag of R16 and R17 will not have a great impact on the 5g network deployment for the time being.

Editor in charge: PJ

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