The first evolved version of 5g standard has finally been completed. The international standards organization 3GPP announced the freeze of R16 standard, which excited everyone in the industrial chain. It not only enhances the function of 5g, enables 5g to further enter all walks of life and give birth to a new digital ecological industry, but also gives more consideration to factors such as cost, efficiency and efficiency, so as to give greater benefits to communication infrastructure investment and further contribute to the digital transformation of social economy.

The freeze of R16 standard gives 5g stronger vitality and richer application scenarios, enhances the industry’s confidence in the continuous evolution of 5g technology, and will also inject new momentum into China’s 5g “new infrastructure”. Behind all this seemingly smooth, in fact, is the “riding the wind and waves” under the epidemic. Reporters from all media in the communication world interviewed experts deeply involved in 3GPP work: Xu Xiaodong, vice chairman of 3GPP ran plenary session and chief expert of China Mobile, and Sun Tao, vice chairman of 3GPP SA2 working group and director researcher of China Mobile Research Institute.

No “extension”

Affected by the epidemic, the 5g standard R16 stage3 originally scheduled to be released in March 2020 has been delayed for three months, and the industry is worried about whether it will have a great impact on the pace of global 5g construction. Xu Xiaodong said that the freezing essence of R16 standard has not been extended. Although the R16 stage3 work was delayed for 3 months, ASN really marked the basic completion of the standard work 1 (abst ract syntax notation one, ASN. 1 is a joint standard of ISO and ITU, which specifically defines the abstract syntax of information). He said that under normal circumstances, ASN can only be completed one quarter after R16 stage3 function is frozen 1, which broke the routine and conducted ASN at the same time of function freezing 1. The two work shall be carried out in parallel. “On the whole, it will not affect the development rhythm of various manufacturers.” Sun Tao added.

It can be said that R16 is the first technical standard completed through non face-to-face meeting in the history of 3GPP and the crystallization of global industrial unity and cooperation. “Under the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic situation, can guarantee ASN.1 to freeze on time, has condensed 3GPP representative’s countless sleepless nights’ contribution.” Xu Xiaodong felt it.

Novel coronavirus pneumonia has been challenged by many factors such as trade friction, which leads to the lack of a single point of communication between some companies. The new crown pneumonia epidemic is rampant around the world and can not be held in face-to-face meetings. R16 However, the standard experts from various industries and companies around the world overcame various difficulties and challenges, shelved technical differences with a more constructive attitude, and jointly committed to the standard formulation and development of high-quality 5g evolution technology through high-intensity online meetings, extended meeting time and ultra-high-density e-mail discussions, so as to ensure the arrival of R16 on schedule.

R16 will improve the “capability triangle”

Compared with R15, which is the “basic version” of 5g, R16 has been supplemented and upgraded around three aspects: “new capacity expansion”, “existing capacity tapping” and “operation and maintenance cost reduction and efficiency enhancement”, realizing the transformation from “available” to “easy to use”.

Xu Xiaodong said that “new capability expansion” includes the ability to support higher requirements of urllc, the ability to support industrial time sensitive network services for industrial Internet applications, the communication ability to support V2V and V2I for Internet of vehicles applications, and the ability to support air port positioning for industrial applications; “Tapping the potential of existing capabilities” is to re introduce some new features to the defined functions to improve network utilization; “Operation and maintenance cost reduction and efficiency enhancement” is a road test and network operation and maintenance technology based on automatic wireless data acquisition. It will improve the utilization and capacity of the network and the remote base station interference management for atmospheric waveguide phenomenon, which will effectively reduce the labor and operation and maintenance costs.

“R16 is the perfection of the ‘capability triangle’.” Sun Tao continued, “R15 is mainly based on the embB scenario and strives to launch the usable 5g standard at the fastest speed. A major feature of R16 standard is that in addition to embB, it has deployed two important scenarios and capabilities, urllc and mmtc (Dalian Internet of things), which is equivalent to completing half of the 5g ‘capability triangle’.”

R16 triggers the fusion of CT and ot

“More than 60% of R16’s work is related to industry-oriented capabilities, basically covering 5g’s most valuable industry applications, including automatic driving, industrial Internet, telemedicine, etc., such as supporting 5g delay sensitive network, LAN and private network.” Sun Tao said. He believes that R16 can be regarded as the first version of the integration of CT (Communication Technology) and ot (operation technology).

Starting from R16, 5g has truly integrated with the industrial Internet. It introduces new technologies to support 1 microsecond synchronization accuracy, 0.5 ~ 1 millisecond air interface delay, “six 9s” reliability and flexible terminal group management. It can realize end-to-end delay and higher reliability within 5 milliseconds as soon as possible, and can support higher required high reliability and low delay communication capability, It can support the high time delay sensitive network requirements of industrial Internet and the ability for Internet of vehicles applications. These will accelerate the development of AR, VR and other services, as well as the outbreak of industrial Internet and Internet of vehicles.

At the same time, for the application of Internet of vehicles, R16 supports V2V (vehicle to vehicle) and V2I (vehicle to roadside unit) direct communication. V2x supports vehicle formation, semi-automatic driving, extension sensors, and so on by introducing a variety of communication modes such as multicast and broadcasting, as well as optimizing sensing, scheduling, retransmission and vehicle workshop connection quality control Richer Internet of vehicles application scenarios such as remote driving; For industrial applications, R16 introduces a variety of 5g air port positioning technologies, which improves the positioning accuracy by more than ten times and reaches the meter level. Some basic functions of R15 are continuously enhanced in R16, which significantly improves the cell edge spectrum efficiency and handover performance, and makes the terminal more power-saving.

The contribution of China’s three major operators accounts for 40%

In the process of 5g standard formulation, the “standard” force from China is becoming stronger and stronger. Xu Xiaodong said that China Mobile has led and completed the formulation of 15 technical standards, including wireless data acquisition and application aimed at cost reduction and efficiency enhancement, service-oriented architecture framework and interface enhancement, remote station interference elimination in response to atmospheric waveguide, performance improvement of high-speed rail scene, service quality assurance management, asynchronous carrier aggregation to increase deployment flexibility Virtualization strategy management improvement, high-power terminal technology to improve uplink coverage, security capability, service opening, etc.

“Among the contributions of global operators to R16 standard, the contributions of China’s three major operators account for about 40%. “Xu Xiaodong said that China Mobile continued to play a major role in R16 standardization, and its positive contribution to 3GPP has also been widely recognized by the industry: it submitted more than 3000 technical proposals, accounting for more than 30% of the total number of global operator proposals. Its experts served as vice chairman of 3GPP ran plenary session, vice chairman of 3GPP SA2 working group, vice chairman of 3GPP SA3 working group and vice chairman of 3GPP CT3 working group And vice chairman of 3GPP cT4 working group.

The industrial chain does not need to continue to wait and see

More than R16, 5g standard will be iterated continuously. In the future, based on R16, R17 is also under development. Xu Xiaodong said that R17 will further extend 5g capability compared with R16, including 5g based broadcasting capability, satellite communication, air-to-air base station, wireless side slice, and the exploration of mutual enabling between artificial intelligence and 5g. “R17 will be more comprehensively oriented to vertical industries and enhance industry-oriented capacity-building. Basic capabilities such as edge computing and network slicing will be further enhanced, and it will also involve the network capacity-building of the integration of heaven and earth.” Sun Tao added.

Will the postponement of R16 freeze time also postpone R17 freeze time? Xu Xiaodong said that on the whole, the promotion of R17 will be affected, but not very much. Considering the epidemic situation, R17 originally scheduled to be frozen in March 2021 will be postponed to June 2021. If the epidemic prevention and control will continue, it may be postponed again. The practical freezing time will be officially concluded by the end of this year.

“R16 as a whole is the biggest highlight of R16 itself.” Xu Xiaodong believes that the combination of R15 and R16 will enable 5g to fully accept various application challenges. The 5g to be evaluated by imt-2020 is also based on R15 and R16. At the same time, the basic version of 5g in commercial development and deployment will actually be based on R15 and R16. In this case, there is no need for operators, equipment manufacturers or terminal operators to continue to wait and see.

Editor in charge: PJ

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