5g commercial, standard first. In the most critical technical standard field of 5g, significant progress will be made in 2020: 3GPP announced the freeze of R16 standard in the late night of July 3 Beijing time, marking the completion of the first evolved version of 5g standard.

The freezing of R16 standard gives 5g stronger vitality and richer application scenarios, enhances the industry’s confidence in the continuous evolution of 5g technology, injects new momentum into China’s 5g new infrastructure, and becomes a key step in the standard side of 5g’s expansion from consumer Internet to industrial Internet.

Basic capability enhancement: make 5g more stable

At the beginning of 2020, due to the impact of global COVID-19, the 3GPP International Conference moved from face-to-face meetings to online electronic conferences. Meanwhile, the freezing time of R16 version technical standards was postponed from March 2020 to June. Through the joint efforts of all parties in the global industry and overcoming the difficulty of not holding a face-to-face International Standards conference, the R16 freeze was successfully completed in June.

The completion and release of R16 standard means that manufacturers can carry out R & D and manufacturing of corresponding products according to this version, further enrich the application scenarios of 5g technology, and further accelerate the process of global 5g network deployment.

On the basis of R15, R16 has enhanced and improved the carrying capacity and basic functions of the network, and added some new features and capabilities of the network. In terms of basic functions, wireless NR enhancement, v2x, mobility, 5g network automation architecture support, service architecture and network slicing have been optimized and enhanced, and the availability and perfection of functions have been improved. In terms of networking technology, remote interference management, wireless relay, network organization and self optimization technology are introduced to improve the actual user experience of the network. In addition, R16 also adds new functions such as terminal energy saving, positioning and location service based on 5g signal, which not only optimizes the end user experience, but also expands 5g positioning applications.

Construction of “capability triangle”: make 5g more perfect

Sun Tao, vice chairman of 3gppsa2 working group and director researcher of China Mobile Research Institute, said that the biggest feature of R16 is the improvement of “capability triangle”. R15 defines the first version of 5g and gives the infrastructure of 5g. The scenarios it solves are mainly embB use cases and the basic functions of urllc; On this basis, R16 deployed mmtc and urllc scenarios to complete the other half of the “capability triangle”.

Ke Shiya, vice president of Qualcomm Technology Standards, also pointed out that 3GPP has completed the specification R16 of the second edition of 5g standard and greatly expanded 5g to a new service, spectrum and deployment mode, which is an important milestone for the whole mobile industry and the wider ecosystem.

For low-power and large connection application scenarios, IOT features are supplemented based on the new core network, and a small amount of innovation is carried out in combination with 5g. It is understood that ciot has been introduced since 3gppr10 (2010), defining a series of network capabilities for the Internet of things. Based on the existing NB lot and EMTC air interfaces, R16 expands the capabilities of 5gc’s new core network to support large connections.

For the urllc scenario with low delay and high reliability, in terms of high reliability, R16 provides two schemes for how to realize the reliability of data transmission: one is the dual link between the terminal and the service end, and the other is the dual data replication and backup between the base station and the core network gateway; In terms of how to achieve both low delay and fast mobility, the scheme provided by R16 is to establish an N9 forwarding channel between the source uplink classifier and the destination uplink classifier, so as to maintain business continuity when the gateway is replaced in the rapid mobility of the terminal.

R16 improves reliability and reduces delay on the R15 version, overcomes the degradation of service performance and spectrum efficiency caused by the coexistence of urllc service and embB service between or within ues, and can be better applied to iiot, v2x and other scenarios.

Vertical industry expansion: enrich 5g

R15, the first version of 5g, strives to produce “usable” standards at the fastest speed in the formulation process, so as to meet the basic functions of 5g in many aspects. The frozen R16 has changed from “available” to “easy to use”. Focusing on “new capacity expansion”, “existing capacity tapping” and “operation and maintenance cost reduction and efficiency enhancement”, it has further enhanced the ability of 5g to better serve industrial applications and improved the efficiency of 5g.

For industrial Internet applications, new technologies are introduced to support 1 microsecond synchronization accuracy, 0.5-1 millisecond air interface delay, “six nines” reliability and flexible terminal group management, which can realize end-to-end delay and higher reliability within 5 milliseconds as soon as possible, and provide support for industrial time sensitivity.

For Internet of vehicles applications, it supports V2V (vehicle to vehicle) and V2I (vehicle to roadside unit) direct communication. By introducing multiple communication modes such as multicast and broadcasting, and optimizing technologies such as perception, scheduling, retransmission and connection quality control between vehicle workshops, v2x supports richer Internet of vehicles application scenarios such as vehicle formation, semi-automatic driving, extension sensor and remote driving.

For industrial applications, a variety of 5g air port positioning technologies are introduced to improve the positioning accuracy by more than ten times to reach the meter level.

In addition, R16 also introduces enhancement mechanisms in millimeter wave and unauthorized spectrum. With regard to millimeter wave, R16 enhances the robustness and reliability of beam management, which is specifically reflected in the rapid recovery of links between terminals and networks in the case of occlusion or signal fading; As for the unauthorized spectrum, based on the 5gnr subject of the authorized spectrum R15, the process design of resource preemption is introduced to ensure the fair use between it and other unauthorized spectrum technologies.

Compared with R15, although R16 standard has made many enhancements, it is not the end of 5g standard; On the contrary, many features of R16 have really opened a “new era” in the 5g era. In order to meet the emerging new demand for communication in all walks of life, 5g version will be updated repeatedly. Combined with the new demand generated after the launch of R16, new 5g Standard Version R17 or even R18 will continue to be generated.

On December 7, Beijing time, 3GPP officially approved to further postpone the freezing time of 5gr17 standard for half a year, that is, the standard freezing will be completed in June 2022. China Mobile Research Institute said that two versions of 5g technical standards have been released, which can better meet the “capability triangle” requirements proposed by ITU. Therefore, the negative impact of R17 standard freeze delay on 5g commerce is limited. However, some technologies from 0 to 1 in R17 standard, such as NTN technology to bring 5g to satellite, need the industry to wait patiently for a period of time.

Responsible editor: GT

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