The central government has set the tone and increased the investment. When spring comes, “new infrastructure” is out of the circle. Among the seven fields of new infrastructure, the Internet of things is a “pervasive” existence, and the technology is deeply integrated into each module involved in the “new infrastructure”. The era of interconnection of all things has come.

In the recent novel coronavirus pneumonia, IOT technology also showed its tremendous empowerment in the health care industry. We can see that typical Internet of things applications such as robots and intelligent wards have been fully deployed at home and abroad. With the development of technology and the change of market demand, the scope of application scenarios of the Internet of things is gradually expanding.

Arterial network collected the list of 312 medical Internet of things enterprises from multiple public channels, and took the 2018 arterial network research special report: in-depth analysis of 16 application scenarios of medical Internet of things in 2018 as the time starting point, and sorted out seven innovative medical Internet of things application scenarios by comparing the application scenarios of Internet of things products provided by these enterprises. Arterial network will discuss the new reasons and solutions of each application scenario in detail with enterprise cases, hoping to better promote the landing application of animal network in the field of medical and health.

Technical architecture of medical Internet of things

The Internet of things, referred to as IOT, is the core of smart medicine in the future. According to the service-oriented architecture, the medical Internet is divided into four layers: perception layer, network layer, platform layer and application layer.

Technology is the main driving force for the development of medical IOT

The sensing layer, also known as the sensing layer, is the basic feature of the Internet of things. It is composed of sensor hardware including RFID and various intelligent sensors and corresponding data sensing / acquisition protocols. Its function is to identify and collect equipment information and data.

The network layer is composed of Internet, WiFi network, RFID network, 5g network, ZigBee, Lora, Nb IOT and other networks. The function of the network layer is to realize the connection of all objects and allow the device to transmit shared information with other devices in the network.

The platform layer plays a key role in the Internet of things architecture. The core of the platform layer is middleware technology, which needs to meet unified service specifications. The hardware and software platform of middleware can be reused, so as to provide a low-cost platform for the Internet of things and seamlessly integrate Internet of things services and applications.

The application layer is the interface between the Internet of things and users, and the concentrated embodiment of the value of the Internet of things.

The medical Internet of things forms a huge network by effectively integrating various networks and combining the information and data collected and stored by sensing devices, so as to finely manage the people and things in the hospital, so as to realize the intelligence, information sharing and interconnection of resources.

At present, the application scenarios of medical Internet of things have been very rich. In the product list of 312 enterprises sorted out, high and low value consumables management, diagnostic reagent and drug management, medical waste management, infant anti-theft, patient loss prevention, intelligent infusion management and so on account for a large number of application scenarios in the product list of Internet of things enterprises, and their application in hospitals has been relatively mature.

Among them, many application scenarios are developed based on the same technology, such as infant anti-theft, chest pain center, wireless alarm help and other applications use RFID positioning technology, but the service objects and application scenarios are different.

With the increasing popularity of the Internet of things, there are more and more innovative projects based on the Internet of things technology. Many innovation projects have clearly pointed out that Internet of things technology is the technical support of its products, and the service objects and needs of Internet of things products have become richer and more refined.

Based on this, arterial network has sorted out seven innovative application scenarios. They are quilt management, medical staff safety alarm, environmental monitoring, Internet of things + rehabilitation robot, health management scheme, hand hygiene and AGV logistics robot.

Seven innovative application scenarios

Among these 312 enterprises, 55 enterprises are involved in these seven innovative application scenarios.

Enterprise Atlas of new application scenarios of Internet of things

In these seven application scenarios, the arterial network is divided into two categories according to its different characteristics, namely, the medical service demand to improve the quality of medical service and the cost control demand to improve work efficiency.

Obviously, quilt management, environmental monitoring and AGV logistics robots belong to the needs of cost control, and rehabilitation robot + Internet of things, medical staff alarm, hand hygiene and health management belong to the needs of medical services. In the seven innovative application scenarios, the demand for cost control accounts for 54%, slightly higher than the demand for medical services.

According to the analysis of arterial network, although asset management can not directly reflect the effect of cost control for hospitals in a short time, it is an inevitable trend for hospitals to realize asset management through the Internet of things in the long run. In addition, due to medical insurance fee control and other reasons, the demand for cost control of some hospitals has increased, and the desire to realize lean management of hospitals through the Internet of things has been strengthened.

Case analysis of seven application scenarios

For these seven innovative applications, arterial network adopts specific cases to illustrate their real landing in detail.

Medical staff safety alarm

Medical violence has become a global problem. Medical violence is widespread in both developing and developed countries, regardless of living standards and civilization. In addition to raising medical violence to the level of legal protection, it is also necessary to implement protective measures into practical work.

In the “three defense system” of the hospital, civil defense is the foundation, material defense is the guarantee, and technical defense is the core. In addition to other complex factors, there are also direct reasons for the relative lag of hospital safety measures. Therefore, optimizing the “technical defense” in the hospital’s “three defense” system has become an urgent problem to be solved in the hospital security link.

The Internet of things has also played a role in protecting the safety of medical personnel. The safe medical care system launched by Angke information is based on its medical wireless Internet of things platform and medical positioning network design. The alarm system is mainly composed of two parts: front-end one key alarm equipment and back-end alarm management platform. The two are connected through wireless network transmission.

When doctors and patients have a dispute, the medical staff will give an alarm by wearing the badge type positioning label button. The system will send an alarm to the security department, provide the location information of the alarm staff, and track and refresh in real time. The system can also link the video monitoring system to view the video in real time. After receiving the alarm, the security staff will rush to the scene for persuasion and intervention to avoid medical injury.

Angke information security medical system (picture from official website)

environmental monitoring

Many wireless sensors such as temperature tag, smoke sensor tag, water immersion tag, door magnetic tag, current tag and liquid temperature tag are placed in the environment to be monitored in the hospital for data acquisition and monitoring, and then the data is transmitted to the monitoring platform through ZigBee network, GSM network, WiFi and other wireless networks. If the monitoring parameters are abnormal, the platform will timely transfer the data information to the administrator for processing.

Westwind environmental monitoring management platform (picture from official website)

According to the actual management needs of the hospital, at present, westshield has established a three-level hospital drug temperature, humidity and environment comprehensive monitoring and management platform based on the Internet of things, so as to realize the real-time temperature, humidity, power supply status, fire smoke sensing status of the storage and transportation equipment and facilities of all drugs (including cold chain drugs and vaccines) in the hospital, as well as other equipment and working environment Real time comprehensive network monitoring shall be conducted for oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, air particulate matter, concentration of various TVOCs, opening and closing status, etc.

Health management

In the management of chronic diseases, getting the sign information of high-risk groups or patients in time plays a great role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. With the development of Internet of things technology, remote and real-time vital signs collection has become possible through wireless transmission technology.

Mandala technology’s Internet of things based health management platform (picture from official website)

The interactive resident health management service platform based on the Internet of things adopts the Internet of things technology to realize the resident health management service supported by the three levels of health perception, transmission and application, and adopts the open technology route to realize the integration and sharing of medical and health service resources.

RFID reading equipment and wireless transmission module are uniformly installed on vital signs sensors such as sphygmomanometer and blood glucose meter. RFID reading equipment is used to identify users. At the same time, when uploading user detection information, RFID information will also be uploaded synchronously to facilitate data integration of background server. Users can view the data change trend through mobile phones, computers and watches, and medical staff can put forward further diagnosis and treatment suggestions for abnormal data through the client.

In addition to RFID technology, Nb IOT network technology also touches on chronic disease management. In 2016, Huawei, Lexin medical and Guangdong Unicom completed the business commissioning of intelligent sphygmomanometer under the Nb IOT network environment of Guangdong Unicom, marking the birth of intelligent health medical equipment based on Nb IOT technology, which means that Nb IOT business application has broken through and entered the field of intelligent medical equipment.

NB IOT (narrow band Internet of things) is a narrowband Internet of things based on cellular. It is not only an important technical branch in the field of IOT, but also a technology in low-power Wan.

Whenever and wherever possible, the smart sphygmomanometer can upload data from the NB-IoT wireless network to the intelligent health cloud platform for data analysis and sorting, and form a real-time health chart and analysis report. The APP or WeChat official account can be sent to the user’s hands, so that users can understand the health data of individuals and their family members at any time and place, and control the health trend.

Combined with Nb IOT’s technical advantages such as low power consumption and deep coverage, it can enhance the power-saving advantages of the product, solve the problems of poor signal coverage and difficult data upload in some areas of its traditional products based on GPRS wireless return, and further improve the customer’s use experience.

Hand hygiene

Traditional hand hygiene compliance monitoring relies on manual spot check statistics or observer supervision, which is inefficient. With the development and rise of the medical Internet of things, this situation requiring strict process control has been improved. The system based on Internet of things and sensors is the main entry point of health compliance management in information enterprises.

Internet of things sensors can effectively replace human perception of the environment, more accurately and in real time identify the hand hygiene status of medical personnel, and then remind medical personnel by issuing warnings at each time when hand hygiene operations need to be performed. Through the communication network connected to the sensor, records are automatically saved in the service background as the basis for assessment.

IOT solution process:

Paifan technology hand hygiene solution is composed of intelligent AP, area identifier, automatic liquid extraction identifier, badge, Internet of things gateway and medical Internet of things platform.

The smart badge with RFID tag is bound with medical personnel to realize the key position identification of personnel; The area identification device can activate the badge within the monitoring range to realize entrance and exit identification, resident identification and proximity identification.

The automatic liquid taking recognizer is mainly used for hand washing recognition. It uses infrared induction to automatically output liquid, and sends the hand washing start signal to the smart breast card through wireless signal; The Internet of things gateway is used to receive various signals from the smart chest card interface and transmit them to the medical Internet of things platform for analysis and recording after processing; The Internet of things platform is used for equipment status management, department medical staff management, hand hygiene data storage and analysis, etc.

Quilt management

Traditional quilt management requires a specially assigned person to manually count, manually keep accounts and uniformly copy them to excel. With a large amount of implementation, it is also difficult to manage and has great potential safety hazards. It is easy to cause the risk of secondary infection when unpacking and sorting the dirt in the Department; In the quilt turnover and washing stage, the handover procedures are cumbersome, the quality and responsibility can not be traced, and the follow-up inventory progress is slow.

RFID hospital bedding management is to add RFID electronic tags to doctors’ and nurses’ uniforms, patients’ uniforms, bedding and bed sheets (hereinafter referred to as bedding) in the hospital, and automatically identify bedding registration, counting, receiving, recycling, status query, tracking and tracking by using RFID tabletop, handheld and fixed readers Intelligent management mode of various management processes such as automatic sorting of bedding.

Implementation process of Internet of things solution:

Internet of things electronic labels are installed on the bedding, which are associated with the users. The patient clothes, bedding and bed sheets commonly used in each department are sent to each department by a specially assigned person through identifying the Internet of things labels of the bedding. In the recovery stage, the staff of each department will put the clothes into the collection box with Internet of things reader and writer and automatic identification function. After reaching a certain quantity, the staff of the washing factory will automatically notify a special person to recover the clothes, and then the staff of the washing factory will go to each department to recover the clothes to be washed, count and complete the handover with Internet of things reader or handheld machine.

Sichuang Yihui intelligent quilt management system uses RFID electronic tags and Sichuang Yihui Internet of things perception system to digitally manage hospital patient fabrics, medical fabrics and surgical fabrics, and realizes all-round and three-dimensional management of quilt handover and inventory automation and closed-loop tracking of washing quality.

Sichuang Yihui’s washing label also plays an important role in the washing process. In addition to the quality assurance of high temperature resistance, washing resistance, pressure resistance and folding resistance, Sichuang Yihui also uses RFID technology to make each washing label have a unique “identity ID code”. The ID code cooperates with the three networks in one Internet of things platform and data acquisition hardware to make the cloth washing process, handover management and event tracking more reliable, and the control process more systematic and intelligent.

Rehabilitation robot + Internet of things

The application value of Internet of things and rehabilitation robot is reflected in: patients carry out rehabilitation training through the robot. The robot can understand the situation of patients in real time and provide the required rehabilitation training according to the sensors on the robot. Through the Internet of things system, doctors, patients and family members can know the physical condition and training of patients in real time, so as to realize remote diagnosis and guidance.

Arterial network predicts that the Internet of things will be the development direction of rehabilitation machinery products. The reason is:

First, the digitization of medical equipment and the Internet of things can help rehabilitation practitioners master the physical condition of patients more accurately and provide more accurate rehabilitation programs.

Second, the application of Internet of things technology also provides new opportunities and treatment means for rehabilitation treatment. It can create a more interesting rehabilitation training environment, improve patients’ enthusiasm and initiative to participate in training, and realize the quantification of rehabilitation evaluation, visualization of training and intelligent management.

Third, the rehabilitation information management system based on the Internet of things creates a closed-loop cloud platform among families, communities and medical institutions to realize data sharing, so as to improve the two-way referral system and level-by-level technical guidance between tertiary hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals and community institutions, and realize the integration of evaluation, training and testing.

In addition, after the networking of rehabilitation equipment, the rapid warranty of equipment and rapid software update can be realized. At the same time, the use frequency of products can be recorded after the networking of things, so as to judge whether the equipment is suitable for the Department and help enterprises update and iterate the equipment.

Bear-h1 exoskeleton rehabilitation robot, the core product of walking robot, embeds the Internet of things into its own intelligent rehabilitation system.

By installing wireless quantifiable sensors on the robot, a set of evaluation system is established to reflect the physical condition of patients. In the process of patient treatment, wireless sensors collect data such as patient motion amplitude and strength, and upload the data to the Internet of things platform. At the same time, the walking robot will also collect the clinical evaluation made by doctors to patients, and then compare the two groups of data to find their internal relationship and further put forward rehabilitation plans to patients.

Through the Internet of things system, doctors, patients and family members can know the physical condition and training of patients in real time, so as to realize remote diagnosis and guidance. In this way, the time for patients to receive rehabilitation training can be prolonged, which is no longer limited by hospital space or beds, and also increases the channels for hospitals to generate income. For patients, rehabilitation training is more convenient, and the extension of training time will also bring better rehabilitation effect.

AGV logistics robot

Hospital logistics plays a strategic role in modern hospital management, covering almost all the daily operations and management activities of all business departments of the hospital. Because the traditional logistics needs a lot of manpower, it not only has high cost, but also has the situation of personnel logistics confusion, the potential possibility of cross infection of all kinds of personnel, as well as the phenomenon of contamination, damage and loss of goods. Therefore, logistics robots began to emerge.

At present, there are four mainstream automatic logistics forms in the hospital: Medical pneumatic logistics system, rail car logistics system, medium-sized box logistics system and AGV robot. Different types of technologies meet the needs of the hospital for different materials and weight.

Generally speaking, AGV robot system takes mobile robot as the carrier. It is an driverless automatic handling system powered by battery and fully autonomous navigation. It is a new intelligent logistics solution developed with the popularization of various advanced positioning, obstacle avoidance, identity recognition, automatic charging and other Internet of things sensor technology and information technology. By connecting the robot related modules with the hospital his system, it can effectively help the hospital distribution system realize informatization, digitization, networking, integration, intelligence and automation.

The steering, starting, parking and reversing devices of AGV robot are controlled by the microcomputer intelligent system on the vehicle, and there are corresponding programmable input functions. According to the input program instructions, the trolley can automatically move forward, backward, turn, open the door, etc. by laser navigation to the designated delivery place, and automatically return, with no operation in the whole process. The trolley is also equipped with corresponding sensors to provide reference signals for the intelligent system to send information to correct the trolley position.

AGV robot can automatically load and walk to the target position, and transfer goods in the hospital. After the simple transformation of the control end of the elevator, the robot realizes the door opening and floor conversion through wireless signals to go upstairs and downstairs by itself.

From the current market application, AGV robot is mainly used in the following six scenarios: Disinfection Supply Center, intravenous drug configuration center, nurse station, inpatient department, operating room and warehouse.

Technology is the main driving force for the development of medical IOT

The arrival of 5g has greatly promoted the development of medical Internet of things. The communication technology of medical Internet of things includes short-range wireless communication technologies such as WiFi and Bluetooth, as well as wide area network communication technology such as 2 / 3 / 4G cellular communication technology. High rate services mainly use 3G and 4G technologies.

Cellular, Wi Fi and Bluetooth enable the Internet of things to be used across platforms, and 5g is the link to connect these things. Internet of things devices have different functions and data requirements, and 5g network can fully support them.

Haas School of business in the United States pointed out in a report: “what best reflects the influence of 5g in the medical field is’ medical personalization ‘. The Internet of things can quickly process, analyze and return information by continuously collecting specific data of patients, and recommend appropriate treatment schemes to patients, which will enable patients to have more self-management ability.”

With the issuance of 5g license, 5g network will better perform the role of “smart pipeline”, help the data transmission between the Internet of things, and support applications such as high-definition video and real-time monitoring.

Nb-iot network will make the Internet of things out of fragmentation and help the medical industry accelerate information upgrading. NB IOT cellular technology (narrowband cellular Internet of things), as the global unified mobile animal networking standard, relies on cellular network to build a network with wide coverage, low power consumption, large link, low cost and high security. It is the best solution in the field of lpwa (low power wide area network) and can meet a variety of application scenarios of low rate services.

According to the data of 2019, China Telecom has 310000 NB IOT base stations, which is the largest record holder in the world; In May 2019, the scale of China Unicom also exceeded 300000, basically covering the whole country. China Mobile said at the 2019 mobile communication internet of things ecological conference that China Mobile has also built more than 200000 NB IOT base stations across the country, covering 346 cities. According to China Mobile’s big connection strategy, the scale of China Mobile’s cellular Internet of things connection will reach 500 million in 2020.

On May 7, 2020, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued the notice on further promoting the all-round development of the mobile Internet of things (hereinafter referred to as the notice). The overall goal is to promote the migration and network transfer of 2G / 3G Internet of things services, and propose to establish a mobile Internet of things integrated ecosystem with the coordinated development of Nb IOT (narrowband Internet of things), 4G and 5g. By the end of 2020, Nb IOT network will achieve universal coverage in the main urban areas of cities above the county level, In depth coverage of key areas, the number of mobile Internet of things connections has reached 1.2 billion, creating a number of Nb IOT Application Benchmark projects and Nb IOT million connection scale application scenarios.

NB IOT adopts ultra narrow band, repeated transmission, simplified network protocol and other designs, which can meet the connection requirements of the Internet of things. With the help of relevant national policies, lpwan and other technologies are rapidly industrialized. With the large-scale deployment of the Internet of things by the three operators, the large-scale promotion of Nb IOT may become an important breakthrough in the popularization of the Internet of things, NB IOT network will also be widely used in the field of medical Internet of things.

Sensors are the basic components of various medical hardware. The Internet of things is an intelligent service system that connects things, people, systems and information resources through passive / active RFID tags, wristbands, all-in-one health machines, wearable devices and other sensing devices according to the agreed protocol, so as to realize the information processing and response to the physical and virtual world. At present, the most applications of the Internet of things are sensor based monitoring applications.

With the development of sensor, it has become an intelligent sensor with information processing function. The sensor family has also expanded from physical data sensors such as physiological biological data sensors, environmental data sensors and action pressure to innovative sensors such as biosensors, nano sensors and flexible sensors.

On the one hand, the development of sensors expands the information acquisition ability of the current information system and can perceive the physical world more effectively; On the other hand, by strengthening cloud computing and intelligent judgment of sensor data, the information-based decision-making ability has been improved, and the application scenarios of the Internet of things have become more and more abundant.

In the early stage of the development of the Internet of things, the application scenarios of the Internet of things mostly include personnel management, physical sign monitoring, identification and positioning of objects and human bodies. Subsequently, innovative applications such as quilt management, supply chain management and cold chain management aimed at improving the fine management level of medical process and improving the efficiency of medical process began to appear. At present, the Internet of things technology began to play a role in the early warning of medical personnel and the monitoring and early warning of hospital environment. I believe that with the help of policies and technologies, the map of innovative application scenarios of the Internet of things will be richer and more diverse in the future.

        Editor in charge: PJ

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