Optical fiber communication technology stands out from optical communication, becomes one of the main pillars of modern communication, and plays an important role in modern telecommunication network. At the same time, it is also the main means of transmission in modern communication networks. What are the principles and basic structures of optical fiber communication systems? The editor of Kelan Communication will answer them for you.

The principle of optical fiber communication is: at the sending end, the transmitted information (such as voice) must first be converted into electrical signals, and then modulated onto the laser beam emitted by the laser, so that the light intensity changes with the amplitude (frequency) of the electrical signal, and then passes Optical fiber transmission; at the receiving end, the detector receives the optical signal and converts it into an electrical signal, and restores the original information after demodulation.

What are the basic structures of optical fiber communication systems?

(1) Optical transmitter

An optical transmitter is an optical terminal that realizes electrical/optical conversion. It consists of light source, driver and modulator. Its function is to modulate the light wave emitted by the light source into the modulated light wave through the electrical signal sent by the electrical terminal machine, and then couple the modulated light signal to the optical fiber or optical cable for transmission. A terminal computer is a conventional electronic communication device.

(2) Optical receiver

Optical receivers are optical transceivers that realize optical/electrical conversion. It consists of photodetectors and optical amplifiers. Its function is to convert the optical signal transmitted by the optical fiber or optical cable into an electrical signal through the photodetector, and then amplify the weak electrical signal to a sufficient level through the amplifier circuit, and send it to the electrical end of the receiving end for drainage.

(3) Optical fiber or cable

Or fiber optic cables form the transmission path of light. Its function is to transmit the modulated optical signal from the sender over a long distance through an optical fiber or optical fiber cable, and then couple it to the photodetector of the receiver to complete the task of transmitting information.

(4) Repeater

The repeater consists of a photodetector, a light source and a decision regeneration circuit. It has two functions: one is to compensate the attenuation of the optical signal when it is transmitted in the optical fiber; the other is to approximate the pulse management of the waveform distortion.

(5) Passive components, such as fiber optic connectors and couplers

Because the length of the optical fiber or cable is limited by the optical fiber drawing process and the construction conditions of the optical fiber, the drawing length of the optical fiber is also limited (for example, 1Km). Therefore, a fiber line may have problems connecting multiple fibers. Therefore, the connection between optical fibers, the connection and coupling between optical fibers and optical transceivers is crucial for the use of passive components such as optical fiber connectors and couplers.

Optical fiber access equipment, passive optical network (PON), optical line terminal (OLT), optical network unit (ONU), wavelength division multiplexer, etc. Optical fiber communication technology is one of the products of the development of information technology and complements the development of information technology. At present, the application of optical fiber communication technology in my country has been very popular, and the technology development trend is also very clear, and it will continue to play an important role in future social and economic activities.

Reviewing Editor: Tang Zihong

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