The existing IP technology began in 1969, and its deployment and practice around the world in the past 50 years has achieved great success. The development of network technology and the demand of application business always promote each other. In the research of ITU-T network 2030 focus group  , a series of high-value application scenarios for the future, including holographic full sense communication, industrial Internet and whole industry internet, heterogeneous infrastructure, and qualitative communication, are described in detail. The access and bearing requirements of new applications and new services constantly challenge the current IP network and protocol architecture.
Why new IP? In the future, a large number of intelligent machines will be connected to the network, and “machine oriented communication” will produce many new network connection requirements. The transformation of network service object and service mode makes the assumption that “large bandwidth equals high quality” is no longer universally applicable. The punctuality of information transmission in the network and the certainty of network layer become one of the key requirements of future network. At the same time, the requirements of machines for information processing efficiency, duration and continuity will be far higher than that of human beings. In the future, the upper limit of total transmission flux and instantaneous transmission capacity of super large data needs to be improved. More diverse heterogeneous devices such as ultra-low-power sensors, and more diverse heterogeneous networks such as ultra-high-speed mobile satellite networking have gradually contributed to the trend of “everything is connected to the Internet”. Network protocol system needs to match the characteristics of complex isomerization. The future media communication, represented by holographic full sense communication, guarantees the service experience through synchronous transmission of multi information sources and multi-dimensional sensory data. With the gradual growth of the industrial chain connected and based on the network, the high economic value of many business scenarios must have more perfect security and privacy mechanisms to guard the system operation. In the face of the challenges of future application business requirements to network technology, the ability of network protocol system has become an unavoidable bottleneck.
What is new IP? The research on the future network has a long history. In the past history of technology development, various countries and organizations, including the United States, Europe and China, have set up numerous research projects on the future network architecture. They explore and study the future network architecture and protocol system from different ideas, or continuous evolution, or radical change. These innovative ideas based on IP or non IP provide creative ideas and value for standardization organizations including IETF, and provide a huge space for the development of network technology. On the basis of inheriting the existing IP capabilities, new IP has launched a series of forward-looking technology research based on the future vision, aiming to meet the needs of the whole industry internet and industrial Internet dominated by intelligent machine communication in the future, and provide network technologies and protocols that can promise new business capabilities such as deterministic low delay, security and privacy, and Internet Interconnection of all things. New IP systematically improves the network capability, promotes the continuous evolution of network protocol system technology, and comprehensively supports the technical requirements of future 6G and future services. At present, the research of new IP   focuses on five major capabilities improvement.
·New IP studies flexible and variable length address system, and provides diversified routing and addressing capabilities in the network to alleviate the problems caused by fixed length address and single topology addressing mode in traditional IP network. This flexible and diversified addressing and routing system can meet the low-power demands of IOT devices through short address addressing, match the high dynamic characteristics of satellite network through geographical location routing, and realize more extreme service acquisition experience in edge computing scenarios based on service routing. The flexible and diversified address makes new IP suitable for a variety of heterogeneous network scenarios at the same time, so as to realize the interconnection of all things.
·Based on the traditional IP network statistical multiplexing, new IP tries to add deterministic forwarding mode in addition to the current “best effort” service mode. It provides end-to-end deterministic service capability in the network layer to ensure the deterministic low delay and jitter of specific service flow transmission, so as to meet the future intelligent manufacturing, telemedicine, automatic driving and other applications that have strict requirements for network service quality assurance.
·The seven design principles at the beginning of IP network design do not include security factors . At present, there are some problems in IP network, such as easy to forge address, easy to expose privacy, fragile trust model, vulnerable to distributed denial of service attack. Based on the stride security model , new IP analyzes and studies the network architecture with endogenous security mechanism, maximizes the protection of user privacy, builds a solid distributed trusted foundation, and builds a secure and trusted network to meet the requirements of privacy protection represented by gdpr and the security and trust requirements of the whole industry interconnection.
·New IP studies the new transport layer architecture, and alleviates the problems of insufficient bandwidth utilization, inability to perceive application requirements and network status of current transmission protocols through concurrent multiplexing, network coding and cross layer cooperation mechanism. For the future holographic full sense communication, AI video processing and other new applications, to achieve ultra-high-throughput, large data burst, differentiated service transmission.
·New IP explores the user-defined network architecture. By carrying instructions and metadata information in the protocol message, users can express more fine-grained and diversified business requirements to the network, such as qualitative transmission, synchronization between multiple service flows, etc. . Different from the traditional IP network which can only meet the user’s topological addressing requirements, new IP can customize the data packets according to the user-defined instructions to support more complex business scenarios in the future.
What is new IP not? The research of new IP is a technology innovation based on vision. The description of top down does not refer to the Internet governance mode, but a research method in the process of technology research, which is driven by vision and scenario, driven by requirements, and from system to feature. The research on new IP will not “lead to more centralized top-down control” , nor will it make the existing Internet governance architecture more centralized. In addition, new IP research has never mentioned and will not introduce the “close command” . When discussing with industry experts the technical concept of defending against DDoS attacks, new IP mentioned the shut off protocol first proposed by scholars of Carnegie Mellon University. Similar technologies have been fully discussed in IETF DDoS open thread signaling (dots)  and relevant standards have been published. This technology is used for the victim network of DDoS attack to send signaling to the source side network to request the source side network to assist in cleaning the attack traffic  . It is a common practice for professional researchers to cite and discuss this technology when they discuss the technical conception of defending DDoS attack.
How does new IP develop? At present, new IP is in the early stage of research, and is gradually transiting from the research of scenarios, use cases and requirements to the research and experiment of network architecture and key technologies. The industry has also been engaged in discussions on future network requirements. In the past few years, ITU-T network 2030 focus group has attracted more than 100 high-level researchers from academic and industrial circles from dozens of countries, including China, Europe, Japan and South Korea, North America, South America, Africa and so on. It has proposed new business, new vision and new demand for supporting technology for the future. Technical experts from China, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and other countries, including Huawei, are carrying out research on new IP at the same time, and relevant achievements are gradually released in standardization organizations and academic conferences.
New IP is a pure technology research topic, which is oriented to the exploration of future scenarios, and should not be politicized and standpoints. Many researchers at home and abroad are also exploring the future network architecture and protocol technology in different technical paths. The research and innovation of network technology has never stopped, and it continues to move forward towards the evolution direction of intelligent everything and ubiquitous Internet. Huawei has always been adhering to the open mind, and continues to invite and welcome more researchers from all countries and industries in the world to study the continuous evolution and change of IP technology, so as to jointly promote the sustainable development of the world’s communication industry.