Compared with driving the vehicle to the auto maintenance company for offline software upgrade, it takes a lot of time for the owner and a lot of labor costs for the auto maintenance company. The difference is that the over-the-air (OTA) upgrade method gives The future development of automobiles brings new possibilities. Through network communication technology, the data required for automobile software upgrades can be downloaded directly into the car, and automatically installed to upgrade the functions of the car. The functions that need to be upgraded are delivered to cars in the world through the "express line" of the Internet. Upgrading the car's software through OTA can not only continue to provide more complete functions and services for the car, improve car performance, and allow car owners to have a more convenient and smarter car experience, but also quickly fix the loopholes in the car software, allowing the car It is safer to use. As the trend of automobile intelligence becomes more and more obvious, OTA technology has also become a hot word in the industry. OTA can fix bugs in software and ensure software security; it can also add new functions to enrich the possibilities of products. Playability; software can also be upgraded through OTA to provide users with more services, thereby increasing user stickiness.

OTA first appeared in the mobile phone industry. The emergence of OTA ended a series of complex operations such as connecting to a computer, downloading software, and installing updates when upgrading mobile phone software, so that the mobile phone can automatically download the installation package and install it automatically as long as it is connected to the Internet. , making the mobile phone more convenient and smart to use. The earliest OTA in the automotive industry can be traced back to 2012. The Model S launched by Tesla used OTA technology to upgrade the car for the first time. The upgrade range includes human-computer interaction, automatic driving, power battery system, etc. At that time, Tesla could complete the upgrade through OTA. Key card loopholes, increased cruising range, increased maximum speed, upgraded comfort, etc., make the iteration of functions such as cars more flexible and convenient. Tesla's OTA architecture is shown in the figure below. First, the CID of the central control system downloads the firmware package from the cloud through Tesla's private handshake protocol, and decrypts and checks its integrity.


In addition to Tesla, traditional car companies such as Toyota, Volkswagen, Ford, and BMW have also begun to experiment with OTA, and domestic new carmakers such as Xiaopeng, Ideal, and Weilai have also recommended OTA upgrades as a key feature when cars are released. .

OTA technology can be divided into firmware air upgrade (Firm Over The Air, FOTA) and software air upgrade (Software Over The Air, SOTA). Provide firmware upgrade services; SOTA refers to upgrading software through Internet technology. Compared with mobile phones, FOTA is more like upgrading the system of mobile phones and changing the underlying system of mobile phones. This upgrade method is to provide upgrades to the smart hardware itself. , so that the hardware itself can realize more basic functions. SOTA is similar to upgrading an app in a mobile phone. This upgrade method is to upgrade the function of an app in the mobile phone, so that the app can provide more services. Compared with SOTA, FOTA is more difficult to design, and the function and performance improvement brought to users is also greater.

In the automotive industry, the representative brand of FOTA is Tesla. Through OTA technology, all the controllers of the vehicle including the entertainment system and the central control large screen, including the domain controller, can be independently OTA upgraded, and even Power-related performances such as endurance, acceleration, and braking can be changed through OTA upgrades. More car manufacturers are more inclined to SOTA, that is, to upgrade some functions in the car, and focus more on software applications in the car, such as the upgrade of navigation maps, entertainment software, human-computer interaction, etc., and System upgrades that do not involve the core are a type of upgrades in the field of smart cockpits. Therefore, the OTAs promoted by various car manufacturers at this stage are more inclined to SOTA.

The emergence of automotive OTA has greatly facilitated the requirements of car owners to upgrade some systems in the process of using the car. For many car manufacturers, the concept of OTA is not only a technology for publicity, but also for saving Considering cost and time, the emergence of OTA can greatly save the time cost of car owners to go offline when the car is upgraded. Just place the vehicle in a venue that can be connected to the Internet, and the upgrade can be completed quickly. With the obvious trend of automobile intelligence and networking, the concept of autonomous driving is continuously proposed, software-related problems may become an inevitable part of future automobile development, and the emergence of OTA can quickly download data packets remotely. Software defects are repaired to avoid dangerous occurrences in a timely manner.

Today's car manufacturers still maintain a more rigorous attitude towards OTA technology. OTA can facilitate the software upgrade of the car and facilitate car owners, but there are still many drawbacks that cannot be avoided. Compared with the failure of mobile OTA upgrade, it only affects the use of mobile phones. Car OTA Failure to upgrade will affect the safety of the car. In January 2019, the incident of NIO's "squatting" incident on Chang'an Street in Beijing raised the alarm on the popularity of car OTA upgrades, and also showed us that car OTA upgrades cannot grow savagely. Although OTA is the trend of future development, there will still be certain security risks and technical difficulties in actual use. OTA upgrade, especially FOTA upgrade, is to import the vehicle from one state to another state, and upgrade in the traditional vehicle system. Among them, the wired connection upgrade method is mainly used, which has high information transmission efficiency and low error rate, while OTA upgrade is mainly carried out through wireless network. The whole process involves data transmission from software developers to car manufacturers to a single car Process, these processes require that all data channels are secure, and the data is encrypted, otherwise there will be the risk of network hijacking, if there is a car OTA update error, which requires car manufacturers to quickly Complete rollback measures to restore the vehicle system to the previous version to ensure user experience.

In order to regulate the automobile OTA development market, the state has also issued relevant policies. On July 30, 2021, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the "Opinions of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on Strengthening the Access Management of Intelligent Connected Vehicle Manufacturers and Products". ” pointed out that “Enterprises that produce automotive products with online upgrade (also known as OTA upgrade) functions should establish management capabilities that are compatible with automotive products and upgrade activities, and have online upgrade safety impact assessment, test verification, implementation process assurance, and information. Records and other capabilities to ensure that vehicles are in a safe state when online upgrades are performed, and inform vehicle users of the purpose, content, required time, precautions, upgrade results, etc. of online upgrades. National laws and regulations, technical standards and technical specifications and other relevant requirements should be filed with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. Changes in technical parameters such as safety, energy saving, environmental protection, and anti-theft should be reported to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in advance to ensure the consistency of production of automobile products. Without approval, it is not allowed to add or update the automatic driving function of the car through software upgrades such as online." The improvement of laws and regulations also provides further restrictions on the development of automotive OTA technology, regulates the automotive OTA market, and makes automotive OTA better. serve consumers.

With the development of autonomous driving technology, the intelligent technology of automobiles will be further improved, and OTA technology will surely become the main way to upgrade automobiles. Under the software-defined car, OTA can bring more possibilities to autonomous driving, or more consumption modes, such as purchasing some entertainment functions through OTA technology, and customizing some functions of autonomous vehicles. so that it can provide more abundant services. What do you think about the development of OTA? Welcome to pay attention to the forefront of Zhijia and leave a message to exchange.

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