Human beings must rely on their own organs if they want to achieve a series of basic activities, such as life, work, and study. In addition to the brain, the most important thing is our eyes, and (industrial) robots are no exception, to complete normal production tasks. , without a set of perfect, advanced vision system is difficult to imagine.

The machine vision system uses machines to replace the human eye to make various measurements and judgments. It is an important branch of the computing department. It integrates technologies in optics, mechanics, electronics, computer software and hardware, and involves many fields such as computers, image processing, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, signal processing, and opto-mechanical integration. . The rapid development of technologies such as image processing and pattern recognition has also greatly promoted the development of machine vision.

Understanding Robot Vision Systems

Generally speaking, machine vision system includes lighting system, lens, camera system and image processing system. For each application, we need to consider the speed of the system and the speed of image processing, whether to use a color or black and white camera, the size of the detection target or the detection target for defects, how large the field of view needs to be, how high the resolution needs to be, how much contrast needs to be Wait.

From a functional point of view, a typical machine vision system can be divided into: image acquisition part, image processing part and motion control part.

Advantages of Robot Vision System

1. Non-contact measurement will not cause any damage to the observer and the observed, thereby improving the reliability of the system.

2. It has a wide spectral response range, such as using infrared measurement that is invisible to the human eye, extending the visual range of the human eye.

3. Stable work for a long time, it is difficult for humans to observe the same object for a long time, while machine vision can perform measurement, analysis and recognition tasks for a long time.

4. The application fields of machine vision systems are becoming more and more extensive. It has been widely used in industries such as industry, agriculture, national defense, transportation, medical care, finance, and even sports, entertainment, etc. It can be said that it has penetrated into all aspects of our life, production and work.

1. System composition

In simple terms, the vision system can be summarized by three independent and interconnected modules: the acquisition of the target image, the processing of the image, and the issuance of instructions.

The design of the vision system is divided into two parts: software design and hardware design.

(1) The hardware design of the vision system

The hardware of the vision system is mainly composed of a lens, a camera, an image capture card, an input and output unit, and a control device.

The quality of a visual system depends on the level of camera pixels, the quality of hardware, and more importantly, the mutual cooperation and rational use of various components.

(2) The software design of the vision system

The software design of the vision system is a complex subject, not only the optimization of the program design, but also the effectiveness of the algorithm and whether it can be realized or not should be considered, and possible problems should be considered in the process of software design.

After the software design of the vision system is completed, its robustness should be detected and improved to adapt to the complex external environment.

2. Working principle

Robot vision hardware mainly includes image acquisition and vision processing. Image acquisition consists of lighting system, vision sensor, analog-digital converter and frame memory. Robot vision acquires two-dimensional images of the environment through vision sensors, analyzes and interprets them through vision processors, and then converts them into symbols, allowing robots to recognize objects and determine their locations.

The specific process is as follows:

3. Practical application

The difficulty of industrial machine vision lies in the accuracy and speed, which are all at the millimeter level, and the change of the industrial robot gripper in the industrial field is in three-dimensional space. According to different functions, robot vision can be divided into two types: visual inspection and visual guidance.

1. Food safety monitoring

In terms of streamlined production and product quality inspection, machine vision is required to observe, identify, and discover errors and omissions in the production process.

2. Manufacturing

The feature of machine vision system is to improve the flexibility and automation of production. In some dangerous working environments that are not suitable for manual operation or occasions where artificial vision is difficult to meet the requirements, machine vision is often used to replace artificial vision;

At the same time, in the process of large-scale industrial production, the efficiency of artificial vision is low and the accuracy is not high. Machine vision inspection can improve the production efficiency and the degree of automation of production, and it is easy to realize information integration.

3. Solar energy, traffic monitoring

Solar cell and module producers use machine vision to inspect products, identify and track products, and assemble products.

In the field of traffic monitoring, it can be applied to license plate recognition technology, image analysis technology, automatic license plate recognition, detection of illegal parking, wrong-way traffic, and traffic accident vehicles.

4. Market prospect

The traditional manufacturing industry is facing new subversion, and the transformation and upgrading will bring huge market opportunities to China’s automation industry. As a highly intelligent product in the automation industry, machine vision has huge development potential in the future.

China’s electronics manufacturers and foundries have been purchasing a large number of automated equipment to replace labor in the past few years in response to the growing labor shortage in China, which will reach a climax in the next few years. Taiwan-funded factories have chosen to increase the degree of automation, and the upsurge of automatic replacement will come in the next 2-3 years, which will definitely bring new growth points for the application of machine vision products in the industry.

Edit: jq

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