How to solve the power supply of 5g base station
Since the introduction of analog cellular network in the early 1980s, cellular communication has made great progress. Today, as the market moves from 4G to 5g network solutions, the cellular communication industry is laying the foundation for faster data transmission speed, lower latency and a huge leap in capacity, user density and reliability. For example, 5g can not only improve the data rate (100 times) and network capacity (10 times), but also reduce the delay to less than 1ms, and realize the nearly ubiquitous connection of billions of interconnected devices, which are part of the growing Internet of things (IOT). A typical 5g beamforming transmitter consists of digital MIMO, data converter, signal processing component, amplifier and antenna.
Power supply of FPGA
In order to fully realize the advantages of 5g, designers need to use higher frequency radios. By integrating more integrated microwave / millimeter wave transceivers, field programmable gate array (FPGA), higher rate data converters and higher power and low noise power amplifier (PA) suitable for smaller cells, they can make full use of the new spectrum to meet the future data capacity requirements. In addition, these 5g cells will also contain more integrated antennas so that large-scale multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) technology can be applied to achieve reliable connection. Therefore, a variety of state-of-the-art power supplies are needed to power 5g base station components.
Modern FPGAs and processors are manufactured using advanced nanotechnology because they typically perform fast calculations at low voltage (0.9V) at high current conditions in a compact package. In addition, the new generation of FPGA needs lower core voltage to greatly improve the computing speed, higher I / O interface voltage, and additional DDR memory power rail. Therefore, a single FPGA actually needs multiple voltages and different rated currents with tight tolerance to achieve optimal operation.
More importantly, in order to avoid damage, the timing of these voltage rails must be controlled in the correct order. Using the latest semiconductor technology combined with advanced circuit topology and packaging technology to build power supply can meet these strict requirements. However, if the designer fails to use the appropriate power management solution correctly, it will lead to various risks, from low efficiency to thermal performance and other performance related problems that do not want to occur.
Low noise power supply of high speed data converter
Similarly, the faster precision data converters (such as ADC and DAC) require multiple power rails, such as 1.3V, 2.5V and 3.3V with very low noise and DC ripple. Generally, these High-Speed ADCs and DACs are located on crowded printed circuit boards (PCBs), with limited space available. Therefore, the power sensitivity of ADC and DAC must be the first consideration when designing the power system of these high-speed data converters.
By combining the advantages of advanced semiconductor and packaging technology, ADI’s μ module ® silent switch ® regulator can easily solve this problem and meet the efficiency, density and noise performance requirements of high-speed data converters. A good example is the silent switcher ltm8065, which can provide a lower noise, more compact and more efficient power supply solution for these devices. Unlike traditional stand-alone solutions, ltm8065 can significantly reduce the number of components and power board space without sacrificing the dynamic performance of the data converter. The device integrates switch controller, power switch, inductor and all supporting components in a single BGA package conforming to ROHS standard.
In some cases, in order to maximize the PSRR performance, a linear regulator can be used in the power path after switching the regulator. Adp7118 is such a low dropout (LDO) and low noise linear regulator, which can handle a wide range of input voltage, with high output accuracy, low noise, high PSRR and excellent transient response performance of line and load. In addition, there are more models in the product family, which can be correctly selected by using software tools such as ADI’s ltpowercad and LTSpice ®.
Power management of PA and transceiver
These new generation radios integrate integrated transceivers and low-noise, high-power microwave / millimeter wave PA, and have wider bandwidth. Their digital control and management systems need to use a variety of special power technology. For example, gallium nitride (GAN) – based low-noise, high-power Pa will require voltages up to 28V to 50V, while FPGA based control and high-speed ADC and DAC will require multiple lower voltages with appropriate timing control, monitoring and protection functions. The state-of-the-art DC / DC converters provide the required efficiency (> 90%), power density, low noise performance and control functions for these 5gpa’s.
Under the great pressure that the performance of the new generation (5g) products must surpass that of the previous generation (4G), there is almost no room for compromise. Therefore, ADI, as a company that focuses on all aspects of the base station RF chain and has a comprehensive knowledge of power management tools needed to power these applications, can provide appropriate power solutions for today’s 5gpa and transceivers. ADI provides the industry’s broadest range of high-performance power by linear Gamma The product portfolio, from high efficiency, high density DC / DC converter modules to power management IC (PMIC) and ultra-low noise linear regulators (including power timing, monitoring and protection functions), can provide a more comprehensive method for 5g signal chain power supply.
ADI’s μ module voltage regulator and silent switch technology are complete power system packaging solutions, which can provide accurate voltage, achieve the highest efficiency (> 95%) and high power density in the micro package, with high reliability and minimum EMI and noise. These solutions are designed to power high-performance RF systems with the highest power conversion efficiency and density without increasing noise or interference with the target radio signal, ensuring the best performance of these RF PA and other such RF circuits.
Similarly, in order to meet the power timing control challenges when multiple power rails are needed in the circuit, ADI provides a series of timing controllers, ranging from two power supplies (adm6819 / adm6820) to 17 channels (adm1266). In order to ensure the normal, efficient and safe operation of the system, it is very important to monitor the device voltage, current or temperature. For this reason, ADI provides ltc2990 and other devices.
All in all, ADI’s power by linear product portfolio includes low noise LDO regulators, low EMI and highly integrated multi rail DC / DC converter μ module devices, silent switcher technology and other power management ICs (including power sequence controllers, monitors and protection circuits), all of which enable ADI to provide the industry’s most extensive power product range. The series can fully meet the power supply requirements of 5g base station components, including software design and simulation tools such as ltpowercad and LTSpice. These tools simplify the task of choosing the right power management solution for devices, so they can provide the best power solution for 5g base station components.
Construction cost of 5g base station
This year is only the warm-up year of 5g, not even the first year of its launch, but the rapid development of the market, the price of 5g mobile phones has been pulled down to less than 2000 yuan, it can be imagined that in the first year of 5g next year, the development of the whole industry, what would be the scene?!
However, when it comes to the 5g process, the main progress should be the 5g construction speed of operators. By the end of this year, 130000 5g base stations will be built, which can be ignored compared with the scale of tens of millions. Even if it can reach at least the comfortable demand scale of 56 million, it can be said that it is far away. But how to build 5g base station? How much does a 5g base station cost? Maybe it’s a common concern for adults. Previously, it was said that the investment of 5g is at least 3-4 times that of 4G. Because of the same coverage, four 5g base stations can achieve the effect of one 4G base station at present. When it comes to maintenance costs, the power consumption of 5g is about 3-4 times that of 4G. Therefore, operators have been saying that the cost of 5g construction is not unreasonable. How much is it really expensive?
Taking our most common macro base station for example, the main difference between 5g and 4G is that RRU and antenna feeder are “merged” into AAU (active antenna unit), which is connected with BBU (baseband processing unit) through optical fiber. At present, the price offered by the equipment manufacturer to the operator is: 1 BBU + 3 AAUs, only hardware price, domestic price is 200000 yuan, and foreign price is 300000-400000 yuan. So this quotation is a very volatile range. Even at a small price, a group of 5g base station main equipment will cost at least 200000-250000 yuan.
In addition, the price of an antenna varies from 1500 to 6000 yuan depending on the specifications. In order to build a 5g base station, equipment such as machine room and supporting power supply are also needed. Generally, the price of an outdoor cabinet is 5000 yuan, and the price of a power cabinet is 5000-10000 yuan. The cost of batteries, towers and other costs are inevitable. Without considering the rent and labor, if a new 5g base station is built, it will be about 300000 yuan. If the rent and labor are included, it is estimated to be 400000-500000 on average.
Of course, the main base stations in 5g era are micro stations. For technical reasons, micro base stations can be seen everywhere. In this kind of urban densely populated place, the hardware cost of equipment is not the key, but the site rent and entrance fee are often more expensive, and the cost of indoor construction (wiring and installation) is also more expensive.
Finally, when a 5g base station is put into use, the subsequent maintenance cost is the key big head. Before 5g users can’t reach the scale, the pressure of operators can be imagined.
Therefore, the construction cost of 5g base station is really expensive. In a word, we should start with 500000 yuan, and consider the tower rent and electricity fee paid for later operation!