Blockchains can generally be divided into public chains, alliance chains and private chains according to use objects and application scenarios.

The public chain is a non permitted chain, which is open to everyone. All nodes can freely join and exit the network. Any node can also read data and send transactions, and the transactions can be effectively confirmed. There are no centralized service end nodes in the public chain network.

There is basically no doubt about the definition of public chain. At most, there may be some differences in specific words. However, the concepts of alliance chain and private chain are somewhat vague.

“Alliance chain” refers to a blockchain jointly managed by multiple institutions. Each organization or institution manages one or more nodes, and its data can only be read, written and sent by different institutions in the system. Each node of the alliance chain usually has its corresponding entity organization, which can join and exit after authorization. All institutions and organizations form an alliance related to interests and maintain it together Healthy operation of blockchain. “

“Private chain, also known as private chain, is a non-public ‘chain’. Generally, it needs authorization to join nodes. In addition, the write permission of each node in the private chain is strictly controlled, and the read permission is selectively opened to the outside world according to needs. Generally, private chain is suitable for internal applications of enterprises and internal data management and audit of specific organizations Application of financial scenarios. Especially in some cases, some rules on the private chain can be modified by institutions, such as restoring transaction processes and other services. “

The above definitions of alliance chain and private chain are the definitions we searched through the network. Other definitions of alliance chain and private chain are basically similar.

How to distinguish Private chain and alliance chain

Carefully sort out, analyze and summarize the definition of alliance chain and private chain. It seems that the difference only lies in that private chain is suitable for enterprises or institutions, and alliance chain is suitable for organizations. This definition has its inherent inconsistencies. Especially in today’s world, what is inside an enterprise and what is between organizations is not an easy thing to say.

比如摩根大通,本身是跨国机构,集团内部又有不同的公司,不同的公司也是单独的实体。如果摩根大通建了一条链,供机构内部公司使用,那么这条链是私有链,还是联盟链?

如果我们把私有链界定为面向单一业务场景的区块链系统,联盟链界定为面向多个业务主体、关联多个业务场景应用的区块链系统,很多不一致之处就可以解决了。面向单一业务场景的区块链系统,面对的可能是单一主体客户,也可能是多个业务主体客户。比如通过投票选举领导人的投票链,尽管面对人数众多,但所有人在这个系统中的身份都是选举人,是单一主体;用于小区设备管理的区块链系统,通过对所有设备加载设备状态传感器,并直接将设备状态数据写入区块链系统,那么这个系统面向的就是多业务主体,既包括设备使用者,也包括设备管理方和设备维护方,但这个系统是单一业务场景,即设备管理。

因此,类似摩根大通要发行的数字货币 JPMCoin就是私有链系统,而不是联盟链系统,Facebook发行Libra的系统也是私有链系统,而不是联盟链系统。因为尽管内部存在多个业务主体,但面对的是单一业务场景。

由此,我们可以再进一步,是否可以由私有链构建联盟链?我们认为这种思路不仅是可行的,而且也是未来区块链系统发展和落地的必经之路,即由私有链或扩展或组合成为联盟链系统,由单一场景或连接或扩展为多业务场景,由单一业务主体扩展或连接到多业务主体。

因此,在联盟链系统中,就有可能存在多个私有链系统,每个私有链系统作为单独的一个节点或几个节点参与联盟链系统的运营和管理,各个私有链系统内部实现数据共享。当然也有可能联盟链系统直接面向多个单独的业务节点。构成联盟链的节点,既可能是单一的节点,也可能是某一个私有链系统。联盟链系统相比私有链在更高一个层面上,在联盟链直接关联的节点内部实现联盟链的数据共享。还有一种可能,即可能会存在业务场景的递归,私有链嵌套私有链,但这并不否定联盟链的存在。

由私有链构建私有链,由私有链构建联盟链,以及数据在不同层面不同层级范围内共享,这极有可能是未来区块链真正落地的系统架构。

责任编辑:Ct

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