A suitable headset can give us the best music enjoyment, but everyone has a different pursuit of music. People who have no pursuit of sound quality and can only hear sound may account for the majority of the people around us. Yes, and those who form a strong contrast with them are enthusiasts who have a strong pursuit of hifi. A wide range of earphone brands on the market will make it difficult for people to choose. Only when they become professional can they know how to choose suitable earphones.
Let’s make it up for you to popularize science!
In recent years, with the increasing progress of science and technology, the price of good headphones has become more and more civilian, or cost-effective.
At this time, a group with a large number of people appeared. They have certain economic ability. Although their pursuit of hifi is not “fever”, they also hope to hear really good sound quality.
Therefore, before buying headphones, you don’t want to be a Xiaobai or know nothing about headphones. You need to properly understand some basic knowledge, and then choose your own headphone equipment.
There are many classification angles of earphones, and the main classification methods are:
1) Classification according to appearance (earplugs, headwear);
2) Classification according to sound generation principle (moving coil, moving iron, etc.)
3) Classification by degree of openness (open, semi open, closed)
4) Classification by use (household, portable, etc.)
The following is a detailed analysis from these angles.
According to the appearance, it can be divided into in ear type and head wearing type
① In ear headphones
Earplugs generally refer to earphones with small diameter of driver unit, which can be worn on the external auricle or inserted into the ear canal. Earplugs can be divided into semi in ear type and in ear type. Generally, earplugs that can be inserted into the external auditory canal are called in ear type, and those worn on the external auricle are called semi in ear type.
About in ear and semi in ear, some friends distinguish them into two different ways of wearing. In fact, there is no such saying. Their ways of wearing are “plug”, but the scales are different.
In ear headphones
The biggest difference between headphones and earplugs in appearance lies in the size. The size of such headphones is generally much larger than earplugs, which can be divided into medium-sized headphones and full-size headphones. Interestingly, they are distinguished according to the size of earmuffs rather than the size of speakers. In short, the earmuffs of medium-sized headphones can not completely cover the auricle, while the full-size headphones, which is often called “big headphones”, can completely cover the auricle to achieve better sound insulation effect.
According to the sound principle, it can be divided into moving coil, moving iron and static electricity
① Dynamic earphones: at present, most earphone earplugs belong to dynamic earphones. The principle is similar to that of ordinary speakers. The coil in the permanent magnetic field is connected with the diaphragm. The coil drives the diaphragm to sound under the drive of signal current. The central protrusion of the diaphragm is the main sound producing area, and the adjacent smooth edge can provide sufficient stroke.
Advantages of dynamic headphones: first, the technology is very mature and the cost is low. On the whole, the sound of dynamic headphones is relaxed and natural. The low frequency of non in ear dynamic earphones may be slightly insufficient, while the low frequency of in ear earphones will be much sufficient. In terms of sound texture, the middle and high-end dynamic earphones have a good dive and deep listening feeling.
② Moving iron earphone: inside the moving iron earplug, the voice coil is wound on a precision connecting rod called “balance armature” located in the center of the permanent magnetic field. Through this structure, the precision connecting rod is transmitted to the central point of a micro diaphragm. This iron plate vibrates and makes sound under the action of magnetic force. The cost of mobile iron earphones is high due to late start and technical reasons.
Advantages of moving iron earphones: the sound generating unit of moving iron is relatively small, which can effectively reduce the area of the ear part and put it into the deeper ear canal. Therefore, a soft silicone cover can play a good sound insulation and leak proof effect compared with traditional earplugs. In addition, the sound of the moving iron unit is very sharp. Its strengths are analytical power, strong sense of speed, instantaneous dynamics and sound density.
③ Electrostatic earphone: the diaphragm is in a changing electric field. The diaphragm is extremely thin and accurate to several microns (at present, the diaphragm of Stax’s new generation of electrostatic earphone has been accurate to 1.35 microns). The coil drives the diaphragm to sound under the driving force of the electric field. Due to the high manufacturing cost, electrostatic earphones have always been a relatively small number of products.
Schematic diagram of working principle of electrostatic loudspeaker
Advantages of electrostatic earphones: first, the diaphragm can be made very thin and light, resulting in faster speed, better transient response and stronger detail expression. Second, the diaphragm of the electrostatic earphone is a completely planar diaphragm sandwiched between the positive and negative parallel fixed plates. The electric field is completely uniform, so it can be driven linearly without split vibration.
Understand the working principle of moving coil, moving iron and electrostatic earphone with a dynamic picture
Classification by degree of openness (open, semi open, closed)
① Open earphone: generally, it has a natural listening feeling and is comfortable to wear. It is commonly used in hifi earphones for home appreciation. The sound can be leaked. On the contrary, the external sound can also be heard. The earphone has less pressure on the ear. Most headphones on the market are open design.
Semi open earphone
Open earphone is a popular earphone style at present. This kind of machine is characterized by using sponge like microporous foam plastic to make sound permeable ear pads. It is small in size and comfortable to wear. It no longer uses the thick dye pad, so it has no sense of isolation from the outside world. The sound can be leaked. On the contrary, the sound of the outside world can also be heard. If the earphone is open to a high degree, the sound from the unit on the other side can be heard to form a certain mutual feed, making the listening feeling natural. But its low frequency loss is large, and some people say its low frequency is accurate. Open earphones generally have a natural listening feeling and are comfortable to wear. They are commonly used in hifi earphones for home appreciation.
Open earphones are generally easy to identify. There are many small holes outside the ear barrel, which are basically open earphones.
② Semi open / semi closed earphones: semi open earphones integrate the advantages of closed and open earphones. Some semi open earphones also adopt a multi diaphragm structure. In addition to an active diaphragm, there are multiple passive slave diaphragms, making low-frequency plump and soft, high-frequency bright and natural and clear.
③ Closed earphone: the ear muff exerts great pressure on the ear. The machine pad is also made of sound insulation material, which can isolate external noise. At the same time, people around will not hear the sound from the earphone. The sound of closed earphones is correctly positioned and clear, with strong sound surrounding sense and better low-frequency elasticity. This kind of earphones are common in the field of professional monitoring, but the sound field of this kind of earphones is not as wide as that of open earphones. At the same time, it also has some false feelings. Another disadvantage is that the bass sound is seriously polluted.
According to the use classification, earphones can be divided into household, portable, monitoring, mixing and so on.
Home: Home earphones generally pay more attention to sound quality, sacrifice in shape, portability, and are difficult to push. They need a high-power front-end to give full play to their strength.
Portable: this kind of earphone should consider both portability and appearance while considering sound quality. After all, no one is willing to go out with its ugly earphone.
Monitor: monitor headphones are headphones without timbre rendering, which can hear the closest real sound quality without any modification. It is widely used in recording studio, dubbing room, TV station, radio station, MIDI studio and other fields.
Mix: the mix earphone is a kind of monitoring earphone, which is suitable for DJ’s music monitoring earphone.
1. If it is used for quiet scenes such as office and creation, noise reduction headphones can be selected, and the type can be wireless in ear
2. If you lie in bed at home, a pair of earplugs or flat plugs can provide better comfort,
3. If you play games at home, it’s better to use headphones with semi closed headphones, which has good sound insulation effect and is not easy
3. If used on the street, wireless headphones can help you stay away from the shackles of wire
4. If it is used for sports, choose waterproof and anti falling headphones