When the vehicle arrives at the designated place, the mechanical arm will automatically remove the battery and replace it with a fully charged battery. It only takes about 3 minutes from the time when the vehicle starts to change the power to the time when it leaves the station, which is equivalent to the time when the fuel truck refuels. This is the scene that the reporter saw in Beijing BaWangfen power station of Aodong power bar a few days ago. Taxi drivers who are changing electricity here told reporters that “the monthly cost of changing electricity is about 2000 yuan, which is lower than the cost of refueling fuel vehicles”. Moreover, there are many power stations in Beijing now, and the waiting time for changing electricity is short, which is very convenient. Electric vehicle switching is not new. Since the 1990s, it has experienced many rounds of exploration, but due to the problems of high construction cost, non-uniform standards, and difficult profits in the promotion, only a few enterprises have persisted. Since the beginning of this year, the power exchange mode has ushered in a new development situation. Beijing, Guangzhou and other places have proposed to further expand the scale and capacity of power exchange infrastructure construction. Aodong, BAIC, Weilai and other enterprises announced to increase the layout of power stations. From “promotion difficulty” to “promotion heat”, what changes have taken place in the industry?
Have the problems in the development of power exchange mode been solved? How will we make a big show in the future“ As a way of energy supplement for electric vehicles, the “power exchange mode” has been approved by the national policy, and has been frequently named by the official since this year. First, the “notice on improving the financial subsidy policy for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles” issued in April this year clearly states that the electric vehicle replacement mode is not subject to the regulation that “the price of new energy passenger vehicles must be less than 300000 yuan (including 300000 yuan) before subsidy”; Later, the “increase of charging piles, power stations and other facilities” was written into the government work report. Miao Wei, Minister of the Ministry of industry and information technology, also said that he would continue to increase the construction of charging and swapping infrastructure and encourage interconnection of various charging and swapping facilities“ The power exchange mode has been initially recognized by the national policy. ” Lian Qingfeng, deputy secretary of the Party committee of BAIC new energy, is the first car company in China to make large-scale layout of power plants. Looking back on the development of power exchange mode, it can be described as twists and turns. Related research has been started since the 1990s. Israel’s better place company and Tesla have tried the water for electricity mode, but they all declared bankruptcy or gave up. State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) has also experienced the process from “mainly charging” to “mainly replacing” and then to “mainly charging”“ The one-time cost of the construction of the power station is large, which belongs to the o2o project with heavy asset operation. At present, the market for tram is still relatively single, and the proportion of production and marketing scale is not high. In actual operation, some cities may have problems such as low service load rate of power station, few relative service outlets, and poor user experience, which will lead to the difficulty in reducing the service cost of power station. However, with more and more electric vehicles, the construction and layout density of electric power stations will increase. Through large-scale operation, the cost of electric power can be gradually reduced. ” Huang Chunhua, general manager of Aodong marketing center, told reporters.
According to public information, as of 2020, the total number of charging infrastructure in China has reached 1.299 million, while there are only 449 power stations. With the proposal of “new infrastructure”, how to find the right position in the market for the power exchange mode without scale advantage“ If you can install charging piles at home, all the fast charging and power changing don’t need to be promoted. ” Lian Qingfeng said frankly that at present, only 40-50% of electric vehicle owners can install charging piles. The difficulty of charging still plagues new energy owners, and changing the electricity may provide a way to solve the problem. In Huang Chunhua’s view, the power exchange mode has unique advantages“ The power replacement mode has a short time to supplement energy. The Aodong 3.0 power station, which covers an area of 200-300 square meters, can serve more than 300 vehicles every day. At the same time, compared with the damage to the battery caused by fast charging, the battery return mode adopts the battery charging mode under the condition of centralized unified power and constant temperature and humidity, which can effectively prolong the service life of the battery. ” Behind the mature b-end market and favorable policies is an effective path explored by the power exchange mode in b-end markets such as taxis and online car Hailing for many years. BaWangfen power station staff told reporters that the power station mainly serves taxi, the main models are BAIC eu300 and eu260, the daily average of more than 100 vehicles“ When the vehicle arrives at the power station, the remaining power is not the same. We charge by mileage, which is calculated by multiplying the difference between the two doc (vehicle odometer) when the vehicle arrives and leaves the station by 0.35 yuan per kilometer. ““ After the taxi adopts the power change mode, the average daily order number has increased by 25%, the operating mileage has increased by 38%, and the driver’s income has increased by 30%. ” Wang Chunfeng, deputy general manager of BAIC Blue Valley sales and service company, said that at present, BAIC has put in 18000 electric vehicles, and the construction of electric power stations has entered 19 cities. The layout of electric power stations in Beijing can meet the service radius of 2.53km in the urban area. He further said that at present, the industrial chain of the power exchange mode has been opened up, and the investment of a single power exchange station is about 3 million yuan. The cost can be recovered in about two and a half years, and the economy is quite good. Lian Qingfeng further said that the battery replacement mode can unify the management and echelon utilization of the battery, and effectively guarantee the charging safety and battery life. Only when the electricity exchange mode is promoted, can the separation of vehicle electricity value be effectively promoted, the purchase cost of consumers be reduced, and the residual value problem of second-hand cars be solved.
In addition, through centralized energy management and distributed energy storage structure and network, the power exchange mode can absorb renewable energy uniformly, help urban power grid cut peak and fill valley, and promote energy reform“ This is also an important part of the next step to explore the profitability of the power plant. ” Wang Guanqiao, chief analyst of electric intelligent vehicles, has made a calculation. At present, there are about 34 million taxis and online car hailing in China, which can generate electricity charges of 20000 to 30000 yuan per year, and the scale of electricity exchange mode in the b-end market reaches 90 billion yuan“ So far. The power exchange mode is profitable and replicable. Whether it can achieve greater success in the future depends on its derivative ability. ” Ushering in the time node of C-terminal large-scale promotion, Lian Qingfeng believes that from the perspective of policy positioning, the current power exchange mode has reached the time node of fast entering the private market. In fact, in the C-end market, Weilai automobile has set up a successful case“ At present, the penetration rate of power exchange in Weilai is 48.7%, that is to say, nearly half of Weilai car owners have used the power exchange mode. ” The person in charge of Weilai automobile told reporters that at present, Weilai has landed 132 power stations nationwide, covering 58 cities, and 50 new power stations will be added this year. In addition, Weilai has launched two kinds of batteries of 70 ℃ and 84 ℃, and the battery of 100 ℃ will be delivered this year. Users can upgrade the battery by changing the power once, and it is suitable for each Weilai car.
Lian Qingfeng said frankly that the promotion of the power exchange mode has encountered various problems, the biggest of which is “the relationship between chicken and egg”“ Selling fuel vehicles does not need to consider the problem of gas stations, but the power station is an infrastructure. If there is no power station with the same density, the vehicles in the power station mode can not go on. If there are more stations and fewer cars, the station will not survive; But if there are not enough stations and there is no convenience, the buyer will not buy a new tram. ““ Enterprises should take advantage of “demand”. First, the market demand. Second, the market is empty. When there is no one to do it, they should do it quickly. The power exchange mode is successful and sustainable in the aspect of to B. Relatively speaking, the problem of power change mode to C is relatively complex, especially in the definition of safety accidents. For example, if the car I bought has an accident, is it the problem of the car, the problem of the battery or the problem of power change? If such problems are not solved, the promotion of power exchange mode in to C scenario will be affected to a certain extent. “
Chen Quanshi, director of the Automotive Research Institute of Tsinghua University, reminds us that it is particularly difficult to promote the scale of the power exchange mode in the C-terminal scene. We need to expand city by city instead of blooming everywhere“ To B goes first and to C follows up appropriately. ” In Wang Chunfeng’s view, the b-terminal operation scenarios and lines are relatively regular, and the car owners of the C-terminal scenario have higher requirements for the convenience of application, which means that there must be enough and reasonably distributed power stations as support. According to the reporter, in the next two or three years, China’s mainstream car companies will launch tram models. Under the guidance of the national battery standards agency, the upstream and downstream of the new energy vehicle industry are striving to advocate a unified battery box standard, including most of the mainstream domestic main engine plants and battery plants, and gradually promote the standardization and unification of batteries“ In order to make the power station as convenient as refueling, it is necessary to unify the standards of various manufacturers. “
In Lian Qingfeng’s view, without government support, it is difficult to unify the standards. Only by unifying the standards can the power exchange mode have room for development. Li Yujun, executive vice president of BAIC New Energy Engineering Institute, also believes that the biggest obstacle to changing power is compatibility. He revealed that in the future, BAIC will solve the problem of cross platform compatibility. All passenger cars from A-class to B-class, SUVs and even logistics vehicles will use a battery pack to standardize all mechanical interfaces, electrical interfaces and communication protocols, and the power in it can be serialized“ The battery pack can contain lithium iron phosphate, ternary lithium battery, 811 (nickel cobalt manganese) or 523 (nickel cobalt manganese) to meet different needs. ” Lian Qingfeng further said that in the future, the standard of power exchange is unified, but the application must be multi-dimensional. City operators and auto dealers will participate in it. They have different division of labor but cooperate with each other to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results on the basis of forming a “community”. In Wang Chunfeng’s view, the power exchange mode is still only the physical separation of cars and electricity. In the future, it will move towards the price separation of cars and electricity, so that its procurement cost and operation and maintenance cost will be lower. In this way, it can have a broader prospect in the private field.
“At present, there is no real separation between vehicle and electricity in law. On the basis of the power exchange mode, the implementation of” separation of vehicle and electricity “and the leasing of batteries to users can greatly reduce the early purchase cost and make new energy vehicles more popular in the market.” Huang Chunhua called on relevant state departments to make it clear in law as soon as possible to promote the separation of vehicle body and battery.
Editor in charge: PJ