1、 Agricultural plant protection

1. Pesticide spraying and fertilization in farmland

Compared with traditional pesticide spraying method, plant protection UAV can achieve automatic pesticide quantification, precision control and low volume spraying. The efficiency of operation is 8 times higher than that of overhead sprayer. The downward air flow generated by the rotor when spraying drugs by UAV helps to increase the penetration of drugs to crops, save pesticides by 30% – 50%, save water consumption by 90%, and reduce the pollution of pesticides to soil and environment.

Case: UAV hundred regiments war, 6-week operation of 2 million mu

In September 2017, the large-scale joint operation of plant protection UAVs organized by UAV manufacturer Guangzhou Jifei Technology Co., Ltd. kicked off in Xinjiang. It is reported that this large-scale operation is jokingly called the hundred regiments war, which lasted for 6 weeks. More than 600 plant protection UAV operators and more than 1000 P20 plant protection UAVs from all over the country were dispatched and gathered to spray defoliant for cotton and pepper. The operation area is expected to exceed 2 million mu.

2. Farmland irrigation

In the process of crop growth, farmers must understand, master and adjust the most suitable soil moisture for crop growth anytime and anywhere. Use the multi axis UAV to fly over the field and observe the different color changes of farmland soil with different humidity, so as to understand and master the changes of soil moisture with different humidity. At this time, it is necessary to make a set of digital maps according to the different colors of farmland soil with different humidity and store them in the database for use, In this way, the problem of scientific and reasonable irrigation water can be solved by identifying and comparing the information obtained by air sampling of multi axis UAV with the information stored in the database. In addition, multi axis UAV can also be used to observe the withering phenomenon of plant leaves, leaf stalks and young shoots caused by lack of soil moisture in farmland as a reference to determine whether crops need irrigation, so as to achieve the purpose of scientific irrigation and water conservation.

Case: in October 2017, Jiangning District of Nanjing used UAV and integrated intelligent pump station to carry out drip irrigation, pipe irrigation and micro irrigation on the demonstration field. Through the implementation of water-saving irrigation, the irrigation water utilization coefficient has been increased from less than 0.5 to 0.67.

3. Crop sowing

UAV seeding has the advantages of uniform seeding density, large operation range and stable performance, but it needs to overcome the problems of cumbersome preliminary preparation and low efficiency. On December 1, 2017, the agricultural seeding UAV brand droneseed headquartered in Seattle, USA, obtained a new round of financing of more than US $5 million. Recently, the exploration of seeding with UAV has also begun to appear in China.

Case: in November 2017, the staff in the “Hehai Daolang” area of China Agricultural Park in Taishan, Guangdong successfully sowed 500 mu of Astragalus seeds using UAVs.

4. Farmland information monitoring

UAV farmland information monitoring mainly includes pest monitoring, irrigation monitoring and crop growth monitoring. It uses spatial information technology based on remote sensing technology to fully and comprehensively understand the growth environment, cycle and other indicators of crops, from irrigation to soil variation, through aerial photography of large areas of farmland and land, Then to the diseases and insect pests and bacterial invasion that cannot be found by the naked eye, point out the problem areas, so as to facilitate farmers to better carry out field management. UAV farmland information monitoring has the advantages of large scope, strong timeliness, objectivity and accuracy, which can not be achieved by conventional monitoring methods.

Case: in November 2017, the Guangdong Chaozhou survey team of the National Bureau of statistics used UAV for remote sensing measurement of crop area. The sampling survey network of rice yield in Chaozhou is distributed in 6 sample villages in Raoping County, and 3 200 meters are selected from each village × For the 200m survey quadrat, during the two seasons of survey work in the morning and evening, agricultural survey professionals use special PDA (handheld data terminal) and UAV to collect ground feature information, high-definition images and other elements of the survey quadrat.

5. Agricultural Insurance Survey

Crops will inevitably suffer from natural disasters in the growth process, which will damage farmers. For farmers with a small area of crops, it is not difficult to survey the affected area, but when a large area of crops is damaged by nature, the workload of crop survey and loss determination is huge, and the most difficult to accurately define is the loss area. In order to more effectively measure the actual disaster area and investigate the disaster loss of agricultural insurance, agricultural insurance companies apply UAV to agricultural insurance compensation. UAV has the technical characteristics of mobile and fast response ability, high-resolution image and high-precision positioning data acquisition ability, application expansion ability of multiple task equipment, convenient system maintenance and so on. It can carry out disaster damage determination task efficiently. Through aerial survey to obtain data, post-processing and technical analysis of aerial pictures, and comparison and correction with field measurement results, insurance companies can more accurately determine the actual affected area. UAV disaster damage determination solves the problems of difficult survey loss determination and lack of timeliness in agricultural insurance compensation, greatly improves the speed of survey work, saves a lot of human and material resources, and ensures the accuracy of farmland compensation survey while improving efficiency.

Case: on August 4, 2011, Anhua agricultural insurance company used a remote-controlled drone to investigate the agricultural insurance disaster losses for the majority of farmers in Yushu city at the wind disaster site in Nanshan village, Baoshou Town, Yushu City, Jilin Province. By analyzing the image data captured by UAV, insurance companies can more accurately verify disaster losses.

2、 Forestry plant protection

1. Forest resources survey and desertification monitoring

The method of determining the shape, size and location of features by using forest photos taken in the air, referred to as forest aerial survey, is mainly used in forest resources investigation and desertification monitoring. It is an important branch of aerial photogrammetry. At present, the remote sensing system of satellite photos is mostly used in the retrieval of large-area forest information. The cost of satellite remote sensing system is high, but the resolution is low, resulting in that the photos can not accurately reflect the terrain and landform, and are vulnerable to the influence of clouds, so that the terrain and landform are blocked and lose their use value. Staff need to repeatedly shoot and splice a piece of area in order to obtain usable photos, which takes a long time and costs a lot, which is not conducive to popularization and application. The application of UAV operation can effectively reduce the workload of field operation, greatly improve the working conditions, and improve the speed and accuracy of mapping. The unmanned airborne infrared camera and camera system can accurately cover the infrared color photos, detect the areas where forest resources change, and organize large-scale forest aerial photography for these areas, which can improve the aerial photography efficiency.

Case: from early September to mid October 2017, the survey, planning and Design Institute of the State Forestry Administration carried out the pilot task of national macro monitoring of forest resources and UAV survey in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, organized five field working groups to go to all parts of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and carried out UAV aerial survey on 150 remote sensing sample plots selected by the technical group. The main objectives of UAV verification and investigation include improving the interpretation accuracy of remote sensing sample plots by obtaining large-scale UAV images, supplementing regional remote sensing data of UAV images, etc.

2. Monitoring and control of forest diseases and insect pests

Due to climate and human factors, forest diseases and insect pests tend to increase in frequency, degree and area, and the types of dangerous forest pests are increasing. Compared with the previous methods of manual pesticide spraying, drug spraying and monitoring by UAV can effectively improve the level of forest pest monitoring, early warning, quarantine, disaster prevention and reduction, The occurrence of forestry pest disasters has been prevented and controlled.

Case: in May 2017, Shangluo City, Shaanxi Province used UAV aerial survey technology for the first time to conduct general survey and monitoring of pine forest insect diseases. More than 100 sorties have been flown and more than 800000 mu of pine forest area has been surveyed and monitored.

3. Forest fire monitoring and management

The application of UAV is mainly forest fire monitoring, which comprehensively applies high and new technologies such as GPS technology and digital image transmission technology to forest fire prevention. Especially in case of forest fire, the visibility over the fire site is very low. Even if the manned aircraft arrives over the fire site, the observer cannot observe the ground fire site in detail. In this case, there are high potential safety hazards in flight. The UAV can overcome this deficiency of manned aircraft. By carrying camera equipment and image transmission equipment, it can perform fire reconnaissance and fire detection tasks at any time. UAV can survey the forest area in the air all day, find the fire in time, report the location of the fire site, take action to eliminate the fire in the initial stage, equipped with color CCD task load, and conduct air patrol of the forest area according to the predetermined track. It focuses on the early detection of forest fires in remote areas that cannot be taken into account by ground patrol, as well as the accurate grasp and timely understanding of various dynamic information at the scene of major forest fires. At the same time, it can solve the problems that aircraft patrol can not fly at night, visibility can not be reduced due to smoke, etc. As a powerful supplement to the current forestry monitoring means, UAV shows incomparable advantages over other methods.

Case: in November 2017, Hubei Duheyuan National Nature Reserve conducted a forest fire cruise drill using UAVs at the village dam of Mochi village, Liulin township. According to the technicians, the UAV monitoring the forest fire can conduct air patrol according to the actual situation of the local forest land, transmit the fire hazard image data obtained in the air back to the ground in real time, notify the management station and village forest protection point after processing and analysis, and conduct detailed investigation and risk elimination for the suspicious area.

4. Forest fire rescue

At present, more new technologies and equipment are applied in forest fire prevention abroad, and the application demand in this field is also increasing in China. The investment in forest protection is gradually increasing. Satellites are successively used for resource census and forest fire monitoring, while the use of UAV system for forest fire monitoring is still in the initial stage.

UAV remote sensing technology simply means the effective combination of UAV technology and remote sensing technology. Its main technical contents include unmanned flight technology, telemetry and remote control technology, remote sensing sensor technology, communication technology, remote sensing application technology and GPS Differential Positioning Technology, which is a relatively comprehensive technology, It can quickly investigate the forest fire situation in China, and master the corresponding information and data, so as to prevent the occurrence of forest fire or use it for forest fire rescue.

Case: at 3:00 p.m. on December 1, 2017, Shenzhen forest fire prevention headquarters held a field meeting of forest fire disposal drill in the south of Yangtaishan Forest Park, Longhua District. This drill used 38 fire water trucks, 70 fire water pumps, 50 2-ton water bags, 45 wind fire extinguishers, 90 dry powder fire extinguishers, 5 UAVs, 150 tools 2 and 18200m fire hose, The fire command vehicle is equipped with six systems: forest fire geographic information system, picture transmission system, digital intercom communication system, satellite communication command system, UAV fire site monitoring system and UAV thermal imaging.

5. Artificial precipitation enhancement

UAV has the characteristics of simple use, good mobility, easy delivery and no risk of personnel safety. It is especially suitable for artificial precipitation enhancement in forest operation. The UAV can carry 10 rain enhancing flame strips, which are mounted between the belly and the landing gear through the hanger. The ignition of a flame bar in flight is controlled by the ground remote control, and whether the flame bar has been burned is displayed through telemetry information. Multiple smoke pipes can be ignited at the same time according to the actual situation each time. According to the relationship between the amount of silver iodide put in by manned aircraft artificial rainfall industry and the operation area, the silver iodide content of 10 rain enhancement flame bars can meet the requirements of 100 square kilometers of artificial rainfall operation area.

Case: in December 2017, Zhongtian Rocket Company of the Fourth Academy of China Aerospace Science and Technology Group Co., Ltd. successfully carried out artificial precipitation enhancement by UAV for the first time. The maximum load of the UAV in this test is 50kg, and the effective time of each flight is 125 to 250 minutes. It has the capability of blind landing. After adding special equipment, the air traffic control department can monitor and command in real time.

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