The launch mission of the Wentian experimental module was a complete success, and the construction of the Chinese space station has entered a new stage. The unremitting pursuit of technological innovation and reliable products is an eternal topic of China Aerospace. During the mission of the Long March 5B carrier rocket to launch the Wentian experimental module, new technologies and new products, good technologies and good products emerged one after another, which not only helped the "Wentian" to ask the sky successfully, but also will drive the national economy after the transformation of the innovation results. develop. We set up the "Ask the Sky" Black Technology column to interpret some representative technologies and products, and see how the "black technology" can show its talents.
On July 24, the Long March 5B Yao-3 carrier rocket, developed by the First Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology Group, accurately sent the "passenger" – the Wentian experimental module into the predetermined orbit. After the cabin arrow is separated, careful friends may find that at the tail of the "passenger", there are two circular frames, as if the experimental cabin is sitting on something, what is this?
This thing is a large "sofa" specially designed by the designers of the First Academy for the manned space engineering space station construction task. As the name suggests, it is soft to sit on. Relying on this large "sofa", the "passenger" and the rocket are more comfortable and safe when separated.
Why design such a big "sofa"? As we all know, after the "passenger" is sent to the predetermined position by the rocket, it must be separated from the rocket, that is, "get off at the station". This "getting off" is tricky.
Sun Jing, deputy director of productization at the First Academy, introduced that in the past, when my country's satellites, spacecraft and other spacecraft were separated, tape separation or point separation devices were usually used. "Passengers" such as space station cabins have the characteristics of being large, tall, and heavy, and the straps cannot hold such a behemoth; in larger-scale applications, the reliability of point separation will be reduced.
In order to allow the space station cabin to "get off" safely, after nearly 10 years of hard work, the research team has developed a new cabin and arrow separation device, which can not only "tie" the large-diameter space station cabin, but also quickly and Reliable, pollution-free separation.
Great, right? However, during the separation test, it was found that the instantaneous impact of the new separation device on the separation surface was as high as 30,000G! what is this concept?
This is equivalent to the impact force generated when a car weighing 1 ton hits a wall at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour, enough to shatter the car and the wall instantly.
Sun Jing said that there are many ceramics and optical devices in the cabin of the space station, which are particularly sensitive to the impact of the impact, as delicate as a baby. A shock of this magnitude will make the "passenger" ride "uncomfortable" and may damage brittle parts.
What to do? Here comes the key point!
How can we not only ensure safe separation, but also try to minimize the adverse effects such as the impact environment during the separation process, so that the "passengers" can have a comfortable experience? The research and development team took a different approach, improving the force of the connection between the cabin and arrow, and solving the impact problem without changing the connection form of the cabin and arrow.
In a car, there must be a "seat". The development team designed a circular "seat" for the space station cabin, and finalized the optimal position of the "seat". The "seat" is composed of two circular shock-isolating frames, and new technologies such as "particle damping" are introduced inside, allowing the separation shock to rapidly dissipate kinetic energy in the friction and collision of particles, reducing the shock by 10 times. Left and right, it has achieved the best in the world, so that the "passengers" feel as comfortable as sitting on the "sofa" on the way into space and when the capsule and arrow are separated!
On April 29, 2021, the Tianhe core module of the space station went to space on this "sofa". This year, the Wentian experimental cabin also enjoys this service. Because it is taller and larger, the designers have "customized" more adaptive and optimized designs for it to ensure its changes in thermal environment, usage and interface.
Of course, the "passengers" can have such a high-quality experience, and the rocket also pays a part. The added large "sofa" weighs about 100 kilograms.
For rockets, they are constantly reducing their own weight and increasing their "muscles" to improve their carrying capacity. But for the Chang 5B rocket, it is an extremely robust "Hercules" with enough strength, so in order to make the "passengers" have a more comfortable experience, this "seat" is equipped, which is also the rocket's response to " A tenderness of the passengers".
Source: First Academy of Aerospace Science and Technology Group / Wang Hailu