The so-called fire prevention is to reduce the occurrence of fire through various measures, which may reduce the loss caused by fire. To achieve this in the design process, it can be achieved through the use of fireproof building materials. As for the design of evacuation, it is necessary to reserve enough escape routes for the users in the building during the architectural design process.
1. Where fires are likely to occur in residential buildings
After actual investigation, it is found that it is easy to find in residential areas, and the fire hazard areas mainly include the kitchen area and the bedroom area. The reason why fires are prone to occur in the kitchen area is mainly due to the use of gas or excessive flames during cooking. The reason for the fire in the bedroom area is often due to the smoking of people, which leads to the ignition of combustibles in the room, which in turn causes a fire. At the same time, electrical aging and excessive power usage are also important factors for the fire.
2. The main factors leading to death in the event of a fire in a building
Generally speaking, the main reasons for casualties in fires are as follows: First, the evacuation channels in the building are not smooth. For example, some users like to pile up boxes and other sundries in the stairwell. It is easy to form obstacles that affect the escape of residents. Secondly, during the fire, due to the special structure of the residential buildings, an air circulation structure similar to a gas chamber is often formed, which gradually increases the toxic gas inside the building, affecting the breathing of people inside the fire site. In many cases, the inhalation of these toxic gases will cause the fire victims to lose their consciousness and lose their ability to escape. Through practical experience, it has been found that after a fire broke out in a residential area, most of the causes of death were unconscious inhalation of poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide, resulting in coma and death in the fire.
3. Comparison of fire prevention codes and concepts at home and abroad
3.1 Two exits
In the process of construction, residential buildings need to design exits, and in the process of design, there are some explanations and conceptual analysis of the two exits. In the process of residential design in our country, a unit is identified as a unit, and for a unit, one or two exits need to be designed, usually one, and only two in special cases. The main exits are interpreted as two Internal evacuation stairs. Compared with Japan, my country’s fire protection concept design has not been deeply inculcated. Japan’s design for two exits is to ensure that each household has two exits. Therefore, Japanese houses are equipped with evacuation corridors, and balconies can also be used as The transportation channel implements the opening of mutual escape channels. After comparing the two, it can be found that the concept of exit in our country is a shared exit. In the event of a fire, no matter which floor it is, it can be quickly evacuated by means of the exit. Japan’s export concept is that every household has an export, and the nature of public use is lower.
3.2 Division of fire compartments
In Japan’s protection concept design, it is necessary to limit the fire range to a certain extent during the design process, so in Japan’s fire division division, the main unit is the household. In such a division of fire compartments, even if a fire breaks out in a user, it will not have a serious impact on adjacent residents, but there is an obvious difference in the division of fire compartments in China. In my country’s current design of residential fire prevention and evacuation, the division of fire protection zones is mainly based on functions, which are divided into horizontal fire protection zones and vertical fire protection zones. The horizontal fire zone refers to the partitions such as fire doors and fire shutters inside the same residential building, which can prevent the fire from spreading on the same floor. The vertical fire compartment refers to the vertical fire separation of floors and windows with relatively good fire resistance in buildings. The main function is to prevent fire from spreading between floors. From a fundamental point of view, Japan and my country have similar concept divisions of fire zoning, but in effect, the division of fire zoning in my country is more appropriate.
4. Problems in the selection and application of building materials
4.1 The selection of building materials does not pay attention to fire performance
When choosing construction materials in the construction process of civil buildings, generally speaking, the price is used as the main criterion, but the presentation of the fire performance of building materials is ignored. This has a great impact on the future use of buildings, and even many construction units did not pay attention to fire resistance when building residential buildings, and did not pay attention to some basic requirements such as fire resistance limits. The emergence of these problems is mainly due to the disadvantages brought about by the rapid development of my country’s social economy. In the future, the social and economic level will further develop and improve. Enterprises and units pay more attention to the impact of the economy, but ignore the problems of people’s livelihood. This has led to construction units not paying attention to fire performance and safety in the process of pursuing maximum economic benefits.
4.2 The internal composition of building materials is complex and harmful
After analyzing the causes of building fires, it can be found that the main cause of fires is that residents do not pay attention to common fire points in the process of life, such as trash cans, ashtrays, kitchens, etc. At the same time, after the fire, the reason why the residents will suffer serious casualties is that the high temperature is one reason, and the other reason is that they have inhaled too much carbon monoxide or toxic substances. Death due to smoke and toxic substances is the number one cause of casualties in fires. In the future, when choosing building materials, we can strengthen management in this regard, so as to ensure that buildings will not produce toxic gases due to combustion.
5. Fire protection technology contained in civil building structure design
5.1 Design and application of firewall
In the process of civil building design, the design of fire protection is very critical, which will affect people’s lives. Therefore, designing reasonable fire prevention measures can help people quickly escape from the fire scene in the event of a fire and protect people’s lives. For this part of the architectural design, civil buildings mainly need to consider the role of the firewall. Firewall refers to the main measures to avoid the spread of fire in case of fire. When it comes to this part, it is necessary to pay attention to the selection of appropriate materials and appropriate thickness. Only by ensuring the quality of the materials can the walls of the building materials not collapse in the event of a fire, allowing people to quickly escape from the scene. In addition, during the construction of the firewall, it is required not to open various openings. Many buildings have no openings on the firewall during the initial construction, but various openings are often added when the civil buildings are used later, which has serious consequences for fire protection design. In the event of a fire, thick smoke and flames can easily break through the protection of the firewall.
5.2 Rational design and application of doors and windows
Doors and windows are the main way for residents to escape after a fire, so the design of doors and windows is very important and critical. In addition, in the daily living process of residents, the design level of doors and windows will also affect ventilation and lighting. However, after analyzing the door and window design of current residential buildings, it is found that there are very serious problems, such as the installation of anti-theft nets that cannot be opened from the inside, etc., which will affect the escape of residents.
5.3 Design of floors and stair slabs
In the design of civil buildings, the design of floors and stair slabs is also very critical. Many people think that in the event of a fire, the design of the floor and stair slabs will not be of great help to escape, so the fire performance is not considered in the design work. In fact, this kind of thinking is relatively one-sided. Once a fire breaks out, the fire performance of the floor and stair slabs is not good, which will lead to the collapse of the floor and the floor, especially at present, there are many steel structure floors and steel stairs, which ignore the attention and implementation of fire performance . Once it catches fire, it will collapse soon, which will cause very serious consequences, which not only affects people’s escape, but also affects the rescue work of firefighters.
5.4 Use of Electrical Fire Monitoring System
Generally speaking, the main purpose of the electrical fire monitoring system is to prevent and alarm the fire, and the electrical fire monitoring system generally includes the leakage fire alarm system and the electrical fire monitoring system. The main function of these two systems is to use monitoring equipment to detect some parameters in the line, such as smoke parameters, temperature parameters, etc. Once the data exceeds the standard, the electrical system will issue an alarm, so that the alarm location can be quickly determined. At present, most of the residential buildings are installed with this equipment during construction, which can ensure that the residential buildings can be quickly dealt with in the event of a fire when no one is at home or at night.
5.5 Establish a perfect fire water supply system
During the construction of civil residential buildings, it is necessary to build a complete fire water supply system to ensure that fire hydrants can be used to extinguish fires at various locations in the residence. In the process of ensuring reasonableness, it is also necessary to reduce construction costs so that the fire water supply system can It is always maintained and stable under low-cost operating conditions. Therefore, water can be supplied by means of a pressure reducing valve. This method can effectively reduce the complexity of system design, and at the same time, the operation is relatively simple, which is suitable for use in residential buildings.
In the process of selecting building materials, it is necessary to take into account the fire performance level of building materials. The price of building materials should not only be put in the first place, but the pros and cons of fire performance should be considered. Many enterprises regard theory as the main development concept, and this kind of behavior that only considers economic interests leads to the use of many materials that do not meet fire protection standards in civil buildings, which means a fire crisis for civil buildings.
Secondly, the interior of the building contains very complex substances. Once burned, a large amount of toxic gases and smoke will be produced. At the same time, the rescue and disaster relief work cannot be carried out smoothly. It can be seen that in the process of civil building construction, in addition to fire resistance, it is also necessary to consider the actual state of building materials burning after a fire occurs. Only by taking into account the actual properties of building materials can we fundamentally solve the fire problem and ensure that the building can be in a fireproof state after construction and use. Economic benefits and costs need to be considered, but safety also needs to be placed in a key position, and multiple factors can be combined and analyzed to obtain the best fire protection level.
6. Carry out daily fire drills
In civil residential buildings, the design of fire protection is of key significance to the property and life of the people. In the process of life, in the future, it is necessary to pay attention to strengthening the awareness of fire prevention and escape among residents. Especially in daily life, many people have the illusion that they don’t need to worry about escape after a fire, and they can escape easily. In fact, due to the gradual increase in high-rise residential buildings in the future, if the fire spreads, it will be very difficult for residents to escape, and they may need to climb down dozens of stairs. Simultaneously because after breaking out of fire, people’s state of mind is in a state of tension, so often do not know what to do. Therefore, residents need to take the initiative to learn fire protection knowledge in the process of future life, and also need to actively participate in fire drills. This can help people improve the efficiency of fire escape, and in the event of a real fire, they can use various skills to carry out self-rescue and escape in an orderly manner. During the daily operation of the building, it is necessary to place fire extinguishers in conspicuous places on each floor, and each floor is required to install fire hydrants according to the actual area to ensure that residents can carry out fire fighting and self-rescue in the event of a fire.
7. Ankerui Electric Fire Monitoring Cloud System Architecture and Hardware Selection
The electrical fire monitoring cloud system launched by Ankerui Electric adopts self-developed residual current transformers, temperature sensors and electrical fire detectors, fault arc detectors and electrical fire-proof current-limiting protectors, which can detect the main factors that cause electrical fires (wires) temperature, current, residual current, fault arc, etc.) for uninterrupted data and statistical analysis, and timely push the information of various hidden dangers found to the school management personnel, and guide the school to realize timely investigation and treatment to achieve potential electrical fire hazards, To achieve the purpose of “preventing problems before they happen”.
Users can use PCs, mobile phones, tablet computers and other terminals to access the platform and query various information including system information, real-time data, report records, etc., which is convenient to use. Using the low-cost service provided by the system to users can improve the fire protection management and electrical equipment level of the enterprise, and prevent major vicious fire property losses, especially the occurrence of major vicious casualty accidents.
The overall structure of the system is shown in the figure:
7.1 Hardware configuration:
Platform server: It is recommended to purchase according to the configuration standard provided by us, or the customer rents Alibaba Cloud resources by himself.
Recommended hardware configuration: (if you apply for Alibaba Cloud, you can ignore it)
Communication method: RS485, 2G/3G/4G
Concurrent visits: >=10000
Historical data storage: >=3 years
All in all, with the rapid development and progress of my country’s socialist market economy, civil buildings are gradually developing rapidly. At the current stage, there is still room for improvement in my country’s building fire protection design. Construction and specific use need to be carried out in accordance with the design. When selecting materials, it is necessary to better improve the ability of fire prevention and evacuation, and at the same time, it is necessary to avoid illegal use of originally reasonable buildings. The last is to organize people to carry out fire fighting and drills in the process of daily use of buildings, so that people can master the corresponding escape skills in daily life, so that people’s lives and property can be effectively protected.