Phase I

(1971-1973) usually 4-bit or 8-bit microprocessors in word length, typical are American Intel 4004 and Intel 8008 microprocessors. Intel 4004 is a 4-bit microprocessor that can perform 4-bit binary parallel operations. It has 45 instructions and a speed of 0.05 MIPS (million instructions per second). Intel4004 has limited functions. It is mainly used in household appliances such as calculator, electric typewriter, camera, platform scale and TV to make these electrical appliances intelligent, so as to improve their performance. Intel 8008 is the first 8-bit microprocessor in the world. The memory adopts PMOS technology. At this stage, the computer works slowly, the instruction system of the microprocessor is incomplete, the memory capacity is very small, only a few hundred bytes, there is no operating system, only assembly language. It is mainly used for industrial instruments and process control.

Second generation

(1974-1977) typical microprocessors include Intel 8080 / 8085, Z80 of ZILOG company and M6800 of Motorola Company. Compared with the first generation microprocessor, the integration is increased by 1 ~ 4 times, the operation speed is increased by 10 ~ 15 times, the instruction system is relatively perfect, and has typical computer architecture, interrupt, direct memory access and other functions.

Because microprocessors can be used to complete many computing tasks that previously needed to be completed with larger equipment, and the price is cheap, semiconductor companies began to compete to produce microprocessor chips. ZILOG produced the enhanced Z80 of 8080, Motorola produced 6800, and Intel produced the enhanced 8085 in 1976. However, these chips basically did not change the basic characteristics of 8080 and belong to the second generation microprocessor. They all adopt NMOS technology, with an integration of about 9000 transistors and an average instruction execution time of 1 μ S~2 μ S. It adopts assembly language, basic and FORTRAN programming and single user operating system.

Third generation

The third stage (1978-1984) is 16 bit microprocessor. In 1978, Intel took the lead in launching the 16 bit microprocessor 8086. At the same time, in order to facilitate the original 8-bit computer users, Intel proposed a quasi 16 bit microprocessor 8088.

The maximum main frequency speed of 8086 microprocessor is 8MHz, with 16 bit data channel and memory addressing capacity of 1MB. At the same time, Intel also produced a matching mathematical coprocessor i8087. These two chips use mutually compatible instruction sets, but some instructions specially used for mathematical calculations such as logarithm, exponential and trigonometric functions are added to the i8087 instruction set. These instruction sets are collectively called x86 instruction sets. Although Intel successively produced more advanced and faster CPUs such as the second and third generation, they are still compatible with the original x86 instructions, and Intel followed the original x86 sequence in the naming of subsequent CPUs. It did not give up the continued naming with Arabic numerals until later due to the problem of trademark registration.

In 1979, Intel developed 8088. Both 8086 and 8088 use 16 bit data transmission inside the chip, so they are called 16 bit microprocessors. However, 8086 can transmit or receive 16 bit data per cycle, while 8088 only uses 8 bits per cycle. Because most of the original devices and chips are 8-bit, and the external 8-bit data transmission and reception of 8088 can be compatible with these devices. The 8088 uses a 40 pin dip package with operating frequencies of 6.66mhz, 7.16mhz or 8MHz. The microprocessor integrates about 29000 transistors.

After Intel launched 8086 and 8088 CPUs, companies have also launched similar products, including z8000 of ZILOG company and M68000 of Motorola Company. 16 bit microprocessor has larger addressing space, stronger computing power, faster processing speed and more perfect instruction system than 8-bit microprocessor. Therefore, 16 bit microprocessors have been able to replace the functions of some minicomputers. Especially in single task and single user systems, 16 bit microprocessors such as 8086 have been widely used.

In 1981, American IBM company used 8088 chip in its IBM-PC, thus creating a new microcomputer era. It is from 8088 that the concept of personal computer (PC) began to develop all over the world. Since 8088 was applied to IBM PC, personal computer has really entered people’s work and life. It also marks the beginning of a new era.

In 1982, Intel developed the 80286 microprocessor on the basis of 8086. The maximum main frequency of the microprocessor is 20MHz, and the internal and external data transmission are 16 bits. It uses 24 bit memory for addressing, and the memory addressing capacity is 16MB. 80286 can work in two ways, one is called real mode and the other is called protection mode.

In real mode, the total amount of memory that the microprocessor can access is limited to 1 Megabyte; In the protected mode, the 80286 can directly access 16 megabytes of memory. In addition, the 80286 works in the protection mode, which can protect the operating system, unlike the unprotected microprocessors such as real mode or 8086, which will shut down the system in case of abnormal applications.

IBM company used 80286 microprocessor in advanced technology microcomputer, namely at machine, which caused a great sensation. 80286 has significant improvements over its predecessors in the following four aspects: supporting larger memory; Can simulate memory space; Can run multiple tasks at the same time; Improved processing speed.

The speed of the earliest PC was 4MHz. The first at machine based on 80286 ran at a speed of 6mhz to 8MHz. Some manufacturers also increased the speed to make the 80286 reach 20MHz, which means that there has been significant progress in performance.

The package of 80286 is a square package called PGA. PGA is a cheap package from PLCC. It has an internal and external solid pin. In this package, 80286 integrates about 130000 transistors.

The bus of IBM PC / at microcomputer maintains the three-layer bus structure of XT, and adds high and low byte bus driver conversion logic and high byte bus. Like the XT machine, the CPU is also welded on the motherboard.

Fourth generation

The fourth stage (1985-1992) is 32-bit microprocessor. On October 17, 1985, Intel’s epoch-making product 80386DX was officially released. It contains 275000 transistors with a clock frequency of 12.5mhz, and then gradually increased to 20MHz, 25MHz and 33MHz. Finally, there are a few 40MHz products.

The internal and external data bus of 80386DX is 32 bits, and the address bus is also 32 bits. It can be addressed to 4GB of memory and manage 64tb of virtual storage space. In addition to the real mode and protection mode, its operation mode also adds a “virtual 86” working mode, which can provide multi task capability by simulating multiple 8086 microprocessors at the same time.

The 80386DX has more instructions than the 80286. The 80386 with a frequency of 12.5mhz can execute 6 million instructions per second, which is 2.2 times faster than the 80286 with a frequency of 16mhz. The most classic product of 80386 is 80386dx-33mhz, which is generally referred to as 80386.

Due to the powerful computing power of 32-bit microprocessor, the application of PC has been extended to many fields, such as commercial office and computing, engineering design and computing, data center and personal entertainment. 80386 makes 32-bit CPU the standard of PC industry.

In 1989, Intel introduced a quasi 32-bit microprocessor chip 80386sx. This is a cheaper popular CPU launched by Intel to expand market share. Its internal data bus is 32 bits and its external data bus is 16 bits. It can accept the 16 bit input / output interface chip developed for 80286 to reduce the cost of the whole machine. After the launch of 80386sx, it has been widely welcomed by the market, because the performance of 80386sx is much better than 80286, and the price is only one third of that of 80386.

In 1989, the 80486 chip we all know well was launched by Intel. The greatness of this chip, which has been developed for four years and invested US $300 million, is that it breaks the boundary of 1 million transistors for the first time, integrates 1.2 million transistors and uses a 1 micron manufacturing process. The clock frequency of 80486 is gradually increased from 25MHz to 33MHz, 40MHz and 50MHz.

80486 integrates 80386, mathematical coprocessor 80387 and an 8KB cache in one chip. The digital operation speed of the 80487 integrated in the 80486 is twice that of the previous 80387. The internal cache shortens the waiting time of the microprocessor and slow DRAM. Moreover, RISC (reduced instruction set) technology is adopted for the first time in 80×86 series, which can execute an instruction in one clock cycle. It also adopts the burst bus mode, which greatly improves the data exchange speed with the memory. Due to these improvements, the performance of 80486 is four times higher than that of 80386DX with 80387 mathematical coprocessor.

Fifth generation

Phase 5 (1993-2005) is the era of Pentium series microprocessors, commonly known as the 5th generation. The typical products are Pentium series chips of Intel and K6 series microprocessor chips of AMD. The superscalar instruction pipeline structure is adopted internally, and there are independent instruction and data caches. With the emergence of MMX (multimediae xtended) microprocessor, the development of microcomputer has stepped up to a higher level in networking, multimedia and intelligence.

The early Pentium 75MHz ~ 120mhz used 0.5 micron manufacturing process, and the later Pentium with frequency above 120mhz used 0.35 micron process. The performance of classic Pentium is quite average, and both integer and floating-point operations are good. In order to improve the application ability of computers in multimedia and 3D graphics, many new instruction sets came into being, of which the three most famous are Intel’s MMX, SSE and AMD’s 3DNOW!. MMX (multimedia extensions) is a multimedia instruction enhancement technology invented by Intel in 1996, including 57 multimedia instructions. These instructions can process multiple data at one time. MMX technology can get better performance with the cooperation of software.

The official name of Pentium MMX is “Pentium with MMX technology”, which was released at the end of 1996. Since the beginning of multi energy Pentium, Intel began to lock the frequency doubling of its CPU, but MMX’s CPU has a strong ability to exceed the external frequency, and it can also exceed the frequency doubling by increasing the core voltage, so overclocking was a very fashionable action at that time. The word overclocking also became popular at that time.

Multi energy Pentium is another successful product of Intel after Pentium, and its vitality is also quite tenacious. Multi energy Pentium has made significant improvements on the basis of the original Pentium, adding on-chip 16kb data cache, 16kb instruction cache, 4-way write cache, branch prediction unit and return stack technology. In particular, the newly added 57 MMX multimedia instructions make multi Pentium much faster than Pentium CPU on the same frequency even when running non MMX optimized programs.

The Pentium II processor launched in 1997 combines Intel MMX technology and can process movies, sound effects and drawing data with high efficiency. It adopts the single edge contact (S.E.C) box package for the first time and has built-in high-speed cache memory. This chip allows computer users to capture, edit, share digital photos with relatives and friends through the Internet, edit and add text, music or the transition effect of making home movies, use video phones and transmit movies through standard telephone lines and the Internet. The number of transistors of Intel Pentium II processor is 7.5 million.

Pentium III processor adds 70 new instructions and Internet streaming SIMD extension set called MMX, which can greatly improve the performance of advanced image, 3D, streaming music, film, voice recognition and other applications. It can greatly improve the use experience of the Internet, enable users to browse authentic online museums and stores, and download high-quality films, Intel introduced 0.25 micron technology for the first time, and the number of Intel Pentium III transistors is about 9.5 million.

In the same year, Intel also released the Pentium iiixeon processor. As a successor of Pentium II Xeon, in addition to adopting a new design in the kernel architecture, it also inherits the 70 instruction sets added by Pentium III processor to better execute multimedia and streaming media applications. In addition to facing the enterprise market, Pentium iiixeon strengthens the capabilities of e-commerce applications and high-level business computing. There are also many improvements in cache speed and system bus structure, which greatly improves the performance, and is designed for better multiprocessor cooperation.

The Pentium4 processor launched in 2000 has built-in 42 million transistors and 0.18 micron circuits. The speed of the initial version of Pentium4 is as high as 1.5GHz, and the number of transistors is about 42 million. In August of the next year, the Pentium4 processor reached the milestone of 2GHz. In 2002, Intel introduced a new Intel Pentium 4 processor with innovative hyper threading (HT) hyper threading technology. Hyper threading technology creates a new level of high-performance desktop computer, which can quickly execute multiple computing applications at the same time, or bring higher performance for software supporting multithreading. Hyper threading technology increases computer performance by 25%. In addition to providing hyper threading technology for desktop computer users, Intel also reached another computer milestone, that is, it launched the Pentium 4 processor with an operating frequency of 3.06 GHz. It is the first commercial microprocessor to execute 3 billion computing cycles per second. Such excellent performance is due to the industry’s most advanced 0.13 micron process technology at that time. The next year, Intel Pentium 4 processor with built-in hyper threading technology has a frequency of 3.2ghz.

Pentium M: a new type of mobile CPU specially designed by the Israeli team. Pentium is Intel’s x86 architecture microprocessor for notebook personal computers. It was also launched as part of Centrino in March 2003. The following main frequencies are announced: Standard 1.6GHz, 1.5GHz, 1.4GHz, 1.3GHz, low voltage 1.1GHz, ultra-low voltage 900MHz. In order to get high performance at low main frequency, Banias has made optimization to make more instructions per clock and reduce the error prediction rate through advanced branch prediction. In addition, the most prominent improvement is that the L2 cache is increased to 1MB (both p3-m and P4-M are only 512KB). It is estimated that most of the transistors with up to 77 million Banias are used in this.

In addition, there are a series of designs related to reducing power consumption: enhanced SpeedStep technology is essential. It has multiple supply voltages and calculation frequencies, so that the performance can better meet the application requirements.

Intelligent power supply distribution can concentrate the power of the system to the place required by the processor and close idle applications; Mobile voltage location (mvpiv) technology can dynamically reduce the voltage according to the processor activity, so as to support lower heat dissipation design power and smaller shape design; 400MHz system bus with optimized power; Micro opsfusion micro operation instruction fusion technology synthesizes these instructions into one instruction when there are multiple instructions that can be executed at the same time, so as to improve performance and power efficiency. Dedicated stack manager, using dedicated hardware that records internal operation, the processor can execute programs without interruption.

The chipset corresponding to Banias is 855 series. The 855 chipset is composed of North Bridge chip 855 and South Bridge chip ich4-m. north bridge chip is divided into 855pm (code odem) without built-in graphics card and 855gm (code Montara GM) with built-in graphics card. It supports up to 2GB ddr266 / 200 memory, agp4x, USB2.0, two sets of ata-100, AC97 sound effects and modem. Among them, 855gm is internal clockgating optimized for 3D and display engine. It can power the 3D display engine when needed, so as to reduce the power of the chipset.

In 2005, Intel launched Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition dual core processors, and also launched 945 / 955 / 965 / 975 chipsets to support the newly launched dual core processors. These two new dual core processors produced by 90nm process use LGA775 interface without pins, but the number of chip capacitors at the bottom of the processor has increased and the arrangement is different.

The core code of the desktop platform is Smithfield processor, which is officially named Pentium D processor. In addition to getting rid of Arabic numerals and changing to English letters to represent the generation alternation of dual core processors, the letter of D is more likely to remind people of the meaning of dual core.

Intel’s dual core architecture is more like a dual CPU platform. Pentiumd processors continue to use Prescott architecture and 90nm production technology. The pentiumd kernel is actually composed of two independent Prescott cores. Each core has an independent 1mbl2 cache and execution unit. The two cores together have a total of 2Mb. However, since both cores in the processor have independent caches, it is necessary to ensure that the information in each L2 cache is completely consistent, otherwise operation errors will occur.

In order to solve this problem, Intel entrusted the coordination between the two cores to the external MCH (North Bridge) chip. Although the data transmission and storage between caches are not huge, due to the need for coordinated processing through the external MCH chip, there is no doubt that it will bring a certain delay to the whole processing speed, thus affecting the overall performance of the processor.

Due to the Prescott kernel, pentiumd also supports EM64T technology and xdbit security technology. It is worth mentioning that the pentiumd processor will not support hyper threading technology. The reason is obvious: it is not easy to correctly allocate data flow and balance computing tasks among multiple physical processors and multiple logical processors. For example, if an application needs two operation threads, it is obvious that each thread corresponds to a physical kernel, but what if there are three operation threads? Therefore, in order to reduce the complexity of dual core pentiumd architecture, Intel decided to cancel the support for hyper threading technology in pentiumd for mainstream markets.

It is made by Intel, and the difference in the names of two dual core processors, Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition, also indicates that the two processors are also different in specifications. The biggest difference between them is the support for hyper threading technology. Pentium D does not support hyper threading technology, while Pentium Extreme Edition does not. When hyper threading technology is turned on, the dual core Pentium Extreme Edition processor can simulate two other logical processors, which can be recognized as a four core system by the system.

Pentiumee series are marked with three digits in the form of pentiumee8xx or 9xx, such as pentiumee840, etc. the larger the number, the higher the specification or the more features supported.

Pentiumee8x0: it means that it is a product of Smithfield core, 1MB L2 cache per core and 800MHz FSB. The only difference between it and pentiumd8x0 series is that it only adds support for hyper threading technology. In addition, other technical features and parameters are exactly the same.

Pentiumee9x5: it means that this is a product of Presler core, 2MB L2 cache per core and 1066MHz FSB. The only difference between it and pentiumd9x0 series is that it adds support for hyper threading technology and improves the front-end bus to 1066MHz FSB. In addition, other technical features and parameters are exactly the same.

Sixth generation

Stage 6 (2005 to present) is the era of core series microprocessors, commonly known as the 6th generation. “Core” is a new leading energy-saving microarchitecture. The starting point of design is to provide outstanding performance and energy efficiency and improve performance per watt, that is, the so-called energy efficiency ratio. The early core was based on notebook processors. Core 2: the English name is core2duo, which is the general name of the new generation of product system based on core microarchitecture launched by Intel in 2006. Issued on July 27, 2006. Core 2 is a cross platform architecture system, including server version, desktop version and mobile version. Among them, the development code of the server version is Woodcrest, the development code of the desktop version is Conroe, and the development code of the mobile version is Merom.

Corei5 is a four core processor based on Nehalem architecture. It adopts integrated memory controller and three-level cache mode. L3 reaches 8MB and supports TurboBoost and other technologies. The main difference between it and Corei7 (Bloomfield) is that the bus does not adopt QPI, adopts mature DMI (direct media interface), and only supports dual channel DDR3 memory. Structurally, it uses the LGA1156 interface and Corei7 uses the lga1366 interface. I5 has Rui frequency technology, which can overclock under certain circumstances.

Corei3 can be regarded as a further simplified version (or castrated version) of corei5. There will be a 32nm process version (R & D Code: Clarkdale, based on westmer Architecture). The biggest feature of corei3 is the integration of GPU (graphics processor), that is, corei3 will be encapsulated by CPU + GPU. Due to the limited performance of the integrated GPU, users can add a graphics card if they want to obtain better 3D performance. It is worth noting that even for Clarkdale, the fabrication process of the display core will still be 45nm. The biggest difference between i3i5 and I3 is that I3 does not have Rui frequency technology.

In June 2010, Intel again released its revolutionary processor, the second generation corei3 / i5 / i7. The second-generation corei3 / i5 / i7 belongs to the second-generation smart core family and is all based on the new sandybridge microarchitecture. Compared with the first generation products, it mainly brings five important innovations: 1. The new 32nm sandybridge microarchitecture is adopted, which has lower power consumption and stronger performance. 2. Built in high-performance GPU (core graphics card), with stronger video coding and graphics performance. 3. Rui frequency acceleration technology 2.0, more intelligent and more efficient. 4. A new ring architecture is introduced to bring higher bandwidth and lower latency. 5. The new AVX and AES instruction sets strengthen floating-point operation and encryption and decryption operation.

SNB (Sandy bridge) is a new generation of processor microarchitecture released by Intel in early 2011. The greatest significance of this architecture is to redefine the concept of “integrated platform”, and the “core graphics card” seamlessly integrated with the processor has ended the era of “integrated graphics card”. This initiative benefits from the new 32nm manufacturing process. Because the processor under the sandybridge architecture adopts the 32nm manufacturing process which is more advanced than the previous 45nm process, it theoretically realizes the further reduction of CPU power consumption and the significant optimization of circuit size and performance, which creates favorable conditions for sealing the integrated graphics core (core graphics card) and CPU on the same substrate. In addition, the second generation core has also added a new HD video processing unit. The high and low speed of video transcoding are directly related to the processor. Due to the addition of HD video processing unit, the video processing time of the new generation of core processor is at least 30% higher than that of the old processor.

In the afternoon of April 24, 2012 at the Beijing Planetarium, Intel officially released the ivbridge (IVB) processor. 22nmivybridge will double the number of execution units to 24 at most, which will naturally bring further leaps in performance. Ivybridge will add an integrated graphics card that supports Dx11. In addition, the newly added xhciusb3.0 controller shares four channels to provide up to four USB3.0 to support native USB3.0. The power consumption of the CPU using 3D transistor technology will be reduced by half.

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