Artificial sensors and probes enable us to overcome the limitations of human senses and extend them in novel and useful ways using the scientific concepts of electricity and waves.

600 BC – discovery of static electricity

Thales of Miletus of Greece made a series of observations on the static electricity produced by rubbing various objects together. He managed to get a spark by rubbing his fur against the amber rod.

132 A.D. – seismic sensors

Zhang Heng of China built a large copper ship to measure the direction of the earthquake. The internal mechanism of this seismograph remains a mystery.

1600 – the word “electricity” was derived

William Gilbert (England) studied the static electricity produced by Amber friction. He developed from the amber of the Greek “Elektron” to “electricus”. The words “electricity” and “electricity” are derived from this word.

Willian Gilbert (1544-1603) was an English physician, physicist and philosopher. Some people regard him as the father of electrical engineering.

1660 – the first electrostatic generator

Otto von Guericke (Germany) invented the first electrostatic generator, which made it possible to study electricity, thus enabling people to have a deeper understanding of the types of electricity (positive and negative) and the materials of conductors or insulators.

1800 – early battery

Alessandro Volta (Italy) invented a reliable source of electricity. The battery is made of alternating layers of zinc and copper with paper layers soaked in brine between the metal plates.

  

Italian physicist and chemist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) proved that electricity can travel along wires.

1820 – Electromagnetic links

Hans Christian oersted (Denmark) discovered the connection between electricity and magnetism in a presentation. He has been looking for the connection between electricity and magnetism.

1827 – law of electricity

George ohm (Germany) defined the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in a circuit. The current flowing through a conductor is proportional to the voltage, but proportional to the resistance. As the resistance increases, the current decreases at a given voltage.

1831 – electromagnetic induction

Michael Faraday (UK) discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction. Later, he used ideas to build an electric generator, which is now the precursor power generator.

1873 – electromagnetic field equation

James Clerk Maxwell (Scotland / England) discovered the electromagnetic field equation, that is, there are electromagnetic waves propagating in space at the speed of light.

1897 – the discovery of electrons

Joseph John Thomson (Joseph John Thomson, UK) believed that cathode rays were a stream of negatively charged particles, later known as electrons.

1904 – diode rectifier

John Ambrose Fleming (UK) invented the first thermoelectronic valve (vacuum tube or diode rectifier) to convert alternating current signal current into direct current.

1929 – remote sensor developed

Robert Bureau (France) invented radiosonde – a balloon mounted remote sensor used to measure atmospheric data such as temperature, pressure, wind speed, height and relative humidity. Today, there are more than 800 radiosonde launch sites around the world.

1930 – invention of temperature sensor

Samuel Ruben (USA) invented the temperature sensor – Thermistor – a kind of resistance whose resistance changes according to its temperature.

1947 – the invention of the transistor

John Bardeen and Walter brattain of the United States improved William Shockley’s amplifier equipment to invent transistors. Its ability to open and amplify electronic signals has become the basis of modern electronic equipment. They won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956.

1948-1949 – the first autonomous robots

William Gray Walter (UK) created the first electronic autonomous robots Elmer and Elsie, which can sense light and external objects, and use their remote sensors to navigate the area.

1957 – Satellite Launch

Sputnik1, the world’s first man-made satellite, was launched into earth orbit, which started the space age and the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union, and produced huge spin off benefits in the field of science and technology.

  

In the evolution of the Soviet space launch vehicle, the satellite launcher is the second from the left.

1959 – the first microchips were built

Integrated circuits, developed independently by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce (USA), have revolutionized the electronic world. Manufacturing miniaturized electronic circuits on thin semiconductor materials. Kilby uses germanium and Noyce uses silicon.

1960 – GPS put into operation

The first satellite navigation system has been successfully tested. Now, as many as 32 navigation satellites are operating on the earth, enabling GPS receivers to triangulate their positions accurately.

1961 – industrial robots developed

Unimate is the first industrial robot to work on the GM assembly line in New Jersey. Its founders, George DeVol and Joseph engelberger, founded Union, the world’s first robot manufacturing company

1960 – 1970 – Electronic seismograph

These seismometers use an electronic feedback mechanism to maintain quality stability during earthquakes. Digital recording of the force required to achieve this purpose.

1985 – GPS tracking migration

Use GPS to track the migration of the sea. When turtles are underwater and can’t send signals, they can use a salt water switch to save power.

2001 – geonet launched

EQC and gnsscience collaborate on a network of geophysical instruments, automation software applications, and technicians that can detect, analyze, and respond to slow deformation prior to earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, tsunamis, and large earthquakes.

2008 – mimomax network digital link (NDL)

This software flexible digital radio link is designed to link multiple data sources to the base station. It uses narrowband radio channels and MIMO (multiple input / multiple output) technology to send data at very high rates.

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