Underwater UAV is a device that can move underwater, has vision and perception system, operates remotely or autonomously, and uses manipulator or other tools to replace or assist people to complete underwater operation tasks.

The composition of UAV remote sensing system usually includes: flight platform, flying star navigation and control system, ground monitoring system, mission equipment, data transmission system, launch and recovery system, field support equipment and other ancillary equipment.

In the future, with the continuous breakthrough in the technical level of UAV in sensor, accuracy and endurance, it is expected to play an increasingly important role in hydrological environment monitoring, so as to provide key support for water disaster prevention, water resources protection and rational development and application in China.

The flight sensing technology of UAV is mainly used for two purposes. One is provided to the flight control system. Since the main function of the flight control system is to control the aircraft to achieve the desired attitude and spatial position, this part of the sensing technology mainly measures the physical quantities related to the aircraft motion state. The modules involved include gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetic compass, barometer GNSS module, optical flow module, etc. Another purpose is to provide the autonomous navigation system for UAV, that is, path and obstacle avoidance planning system. Therefore, it is necessary to perceive the surrounding environment state, such as the location of obstacles. The relevant modules include ranging module, object detection and tracking module.

Environmental protection UAV online detection can also use UAV to monitor the air quality in the environment. At this time, UAV remote sensing technology should be used. UAV remote sensing technology has the advantages of three-dimensional monitoring, fast response speed, wide monitoring range and small topographic interference. It is one of the important development directions for pollution source identification and concentration monitoring of atmospheric emergencies in the future.

Development and application of environmental protection UAV on-line water quality monitoring

At present, multispectral remote sensing on the light and small UAV platform is increasingly widely used. In order to systematically understand this technology and its application fields, this paper summarizes the hardware technologies such as flight platform and multispectral camera, and combs and summarizes the multispectral image data processing technology and data processing process from the aspects of geometry and radiation correction, At the same time, the future application field and development direction of small UAV multispectral remote sensing technology are systematically analyzed and prospected.

On line detection of environmental protection UAV

In this development process, compared with manned aircraft, UAV has continuously explored its advantages such as efficiency cost ratio, load, speed, range, structure, continuous combat time and environmental adaptability, and is moving towards military civilian integration, benefiting the public and industrial applications.

In terms of aquaculture, gladius underwater UAV can detect the growth of aquatic products (such as sea cucumber). For breeders, it is necessary to obtain the breeding situation in real time. The advanced underwater UAV can also carry water quality monitoring (such as pH value, oxygen content and other data acquisition).

Multispectral remote sensing is a remote sensing technology that uses sensors with more than two spectral channels to synchronously image ground objects. It divides the electromagnetic wave information reflected and radiated by the target object into several spectral segments for receiving and recording. The sensor to realize multispectral remote sensing is a multispectral camera, which can form multiple images with different spectra at one time.

Whether it is the lack of rural labor force or the guidance of land intensive policy, agricultural development has higher requirements for further mechanization. Therefore, bridging market supply and demand, “UAV application to agriculture” has become the focus of running in between enterprises and the market.

In recent years, due to the investment of more and more scientific research and production forces, the acceleration of UAV research and production, and the continuous development and innovation of consumer market, UAV has also been well known by more and more people and recognized by more industry markets. As a flight platform, UAV can carry a variety of equipment and be applied to all walks of life, which also determines that it has high adaptability to various industries.

With the increasingly serious problem of water pollution, higher requirements are put forward for water quality monitoring. The development of water quality monitoring system has experienced many stages, and now the research and application of on-line monitoring system. In order to meet the requirements of flexible and fast water quality monitoring, magic flight integrates foreign technology and combines the threat and complexity of domestic water environment pollution to develop a five parameter water quality monitoring UAV (hf-w5). The core sensing components of the system adopt imported components, which greatly reduces the equipment cost while ensuring the measurement accuracy and quality, Creatively developed a water quality monitoring UAV suitable for China’s national conditions. The five parameters of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity in water can be measured at one time.

The environmental protection UAV online detects the UUV of the underwater UAV, which can be divided into three categories: one is the cabled underwater UAV, commonly known as the towing underwater vehicle (TUV), and the other is the remote operated vehicle (ROV); The other is the cableless underwater UAV, which is commonly called autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Since the generation of manned deep submersibles in the 1960s, it has gone through the evolution of ROV (1970s), AUV (1980s) and hybrid vehicles.

UAV monitoring can not only assist environmental law enforcement, but also provide support for environmental protection decision-making in many aspects. UAVs with high-resolution shooting equipment can monitor the changes of land cover and utilization, water environment and air environment by aerial photography. After technical analysis and processing, it can provide quantitative and intuitive judgment basis for relevant departments and provide data support for the construction of environmental information integration, and magic flying series products also provide great help. The water intake device carried by the UAV can be 0.5L, 1L, 5L, 10L and other devices, and the water assurance rate can reach 100%. The UAV automatic water quality sampling device is applicable to the collection of water samples with organic matter, grease, microorganism and other indicators and the collection of corrosive water samples containing acid and alkali.

Responsible editor: GT

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