For RFID, the global “layout” should be realized,
Make RFID products produced by different enterprises compatible with each other
Promote the popularization of RFID technology, realize the free trade of RFID industry,
A common “standard” is particularly important.
Establishing a standard system to promote the standardization of RFID industry has become a global goal.
The main purpose of RFID standardization is to solve the problems of coding, communication, air interface and data sharing by formulating, issuing and implementing unified standards, so as to promote the popularization of RFID technology and related system applications to the greatest extent.
The RFID standard system mainly includes the following aspects:
RFID technical standard
It mainly defines the air interfaces and related parameters of different frequency bands, including basic terms, physical parameters, communication protocols and related equipment.
RFID data content standard
It mainly involves data protocol, data coding rules and syntax, including coding format, syntax standard, data symbol, data object, data structure and data security.
RFID performance standard
Equipment performance test standards and conformance test standards are involved, mainly including printing quality, design process, test specification and test process.
RFID application standard
It mainly refers to RFID architecture rules in specific application fields or environments.
Among them, the coding standard and communication protocol (communication interface) are the fiercely contested parts, which constitute the core of RFID standard.
At present, most international RFID standards are jointly issued by ISO and IEC, so they are called iso/iec standards.
▲ iso/iec standards (sorted by IOT Library)
The six major organizations that have established RFID standard systems with certain influence in the world are iso/iec, EPCglobal, uid, aim, ip-x and NFC forum.
At present, the three air interface protocols iso/iec18000, EPCglobal and uid are still being improved.
These three standards are not compatible with each other. The main difference lies in three aspects: communication mode, anti-collision protocol and data format. However, the technical gap is not large. However, iso/iec RFID standards largely cover the standards of EPC and uid systems.
ISO / IEC
ISO is the international organization for standardization and IEC is the International Electrotechnical Commission. Both of them are non-profit professional standardization organizations in the world. The standards jointly issued by the two are called iso/iec standards. Compared with other organizations, iso/iec has great credibility and authority. The organization has set up several sub technical committees to study RFID standards and issued standards for multiple frequency bands of RFID.
EPCglobal was initiated and established by GS1 (global standard 1) which was renamed by ean international. Ean was originally the European Article Numbering Association established in 1977. In 1981, it became the international Article Numbering Association. In 2002, UCC and ECCC officially joined EAN. In 2005, EAN was renamed GS1. GS1 is a globally recognized international organization responsible for R & D and promotion of bar code technology, committed to promoting the global business language ean UCC system (known as ANCC global unified identification system in China, referred to as ANCC system for short).
EPCglobal is a neutral, non-profit RFID standardization organization. EPCglobal was jointly established by ean and UCC. It has inherited the successful cooperation tradition between ean, UCC and the industry for nearly 30 years. EPCglobal network is a network platform to realize automatic and real-time identification and supply chain information sharing. Through the EPCglobal network, the transparency and visibility of trade unit information in the supply chain will be improved, and institutions and organizations will operate more effectively. By integrating existing information systems and technologies, the EPCglobal network will provide immediate, accurate and automatic identification and tracking of trading units in the global supply chain.
EPCglobal Gen2 UHF standard is directly adopted in the iso/iec standard for 860-960mhz frequency band.
Among them, the EPCglobal Class1 Gen2 (C1G2 or Gen2 for short) standard is the second generation UHF RFID core standard studied by EPCglobal since 2003. Gen2 specifies the air interface performance of hardware products set by end users and is the network foundation of EPCglobal composed of RFID, Internet and EPC identification. The Gen2 protocol standard has a more secure password protection mechanism. Its 32-bit password protection is more secure than the 8-bit password of the GEN1 protocol standard. In terms of management performance, the UHF working frequency band of Gen2 is 860-960mhz, which is suitable for the radio management regulations of Europe, North America, Asia and other countries and regions, and creates global application environment conditions for RFID RF communication to adapt to the radio management of different countries and regions.
The air interface protocol of EPC standard system regulates the command and data interaction between electronic tags and readers. It corresponds to iso/iec 18000-3 and 18000-6 standards, among which UHF C1G2 has become iso/iec 18000-6c standard.
The full name of uid is ubiquitous ID center, which was established in march2003. It is an RFID research institution under the t-engine forum in Japan. The idea of formulating RFID related standards by Japan ubiquitous identification center is similar to that of EPCglobal. The goal is to establish a complete standard system from coding system, air interface protocol to ubiquitous network architecture, but the specific contents of each part are different. In order to develop RFID standards with independent intellectual property rights, Japanese uid has developed a ucode coding system, which is compatible with the existing coding system in Japan and other international coding systems. It is composed of universal identification code (ucode), information system server, ucode resolution server and universal communicator. The main frequency bands used are 2.45GHz and 13.56MHz.
The RFID standard system of uid is not widely used in the RFID industry in China, and its global influence is far less than that of iso/iec and EPCglobal.
Aim, the global automatic identification organization, was founded in 1999 and has 13 national and regional branches in the world; Aim is a professional association for automatic identification, data collection and network construction in mobile environment. It is a worldwide organization. Aim once specified the universal bar code standard, and now it has also launched the RFID standard.
In November2004, aim and the American computer industry association announced their cooperation to develop RFID third-party authentication.
At present, aim is far less influential in RFID than EPCglobal.
Ip-x is also an RFID standardization organization, a third world standards organization of neutral sovereign states; The members of the organization are mainly countries in Africa, Oceania, Asia and other places, mainly in South Africa and other countries.
NFC forum was founded in 2004 by major mobile communication, semiconductor and consumer electronics companies including HP, MasterCard, Microsoft, NEC, Nokia, NXP, Panasonic, Samsung and Sony. It is a non-profit industry association.
NFC forum formally defines the technical architecture of NFC. Its purpose is to ensure the interoperability between various devices and services by developing standards based specifications, encourage the use of NFC forum specifications to develop products, and promote NFC technology to the global market, so as to promote the popularization and application of short-range wireless communication technology.