With the rapid development of electronic communication technology, the packaging and on-board interconnection of integrated circuits require higher and higher bandwidth for signal transmission. At the same time, the transmission rate of interconnection channel is faster and faster, and the decision time window of logic gate is smaller and smaller.
Therefore, the development of information technology directly leads to the development of integrated circuit packaging, transmission lines and connections in interconnection channels from “lumped parameter model” to “distributed parameter model”. Compared with the packaging of integrated circuits, the transmission lines and connectors on printed circuit boards are easier to enter the “distributed parameter model”, that is, the high-speed signal interconnection channel, because of their relatively large geometric dimensions. PCB interconnects, connectors and components arranged on the constitute the main components of the electronic equipment interconnection system. Signals are extended to other printed boards through printed board interconnects and connectors, thus forming the whole backplane system.
As the key part of the whole interconnection system, the connector has become the bottleneck to improve the system transmission rate. Therefore, developing a connector to meet the high-speed transmission performance is not only the main means to improve the high-speed interconnection performance of the system, but also the key factor to solve the high-speed interconnection problem of information system. In the early 1990s, driven by information technology, high-speed connectors for connecting and transmitting high-speed digital signals began to develop. At present, the transmission rate of foreign high-speed connectors has reached 10Gbps and is developing to 40Gbps.
As early as 2005, the world-famous connector manufacturer FCI cooperated with lucent Bell Laboratories to successfully realize the signal transmission of up to 25gbps transmission rate by using FCI’s high-speed connector airmaxvs and Bell Laboratories’ signal transmission architecture, which once again improved the performance of high-speed connectors.
Driven by information equipment technology, digital information equipment in the fields of communication, railway transportation, aerospace, medical instruments and high-end weapons will put forward higher requirements for the performance of high-speed connector products, such as high density, modularization, high reliability and multi-function, so as to meet the modularization, integration, environmental resistance and Anti interference and other application requirements.
In the past, the main consideration in the development of electrical connectors was mechanical characteristics, such as plug-in force and foot flatness. Secondly, consider the electrical characteristics of the connector, such as insulation resistance, rated current, contact resistance, etc. However, with the advent of the era of high-speed communication, the performance requirements of electrical connectors are more strict, and the transmission line effect caused by its high-speed transmission can not be ignored. Solving the signal integrity problem of high-speed connectors has become a key factor in connector design.