⊙ 1 Pangu opens up the world:How to store ancient data?
In ancient times, there were no words, and ropes were tied to remember events.
“Yi. Tie CI II”: “in ancient times, people ruled by tying ropes, and later sages changed them with deeds.”Kong yingdashuHe said, “for those who tie ropes, Zheng Kangcheng noted that it is possible to tie ropes for big things and ropes for small things.”
At the end of the 19th century, oracle bone inscriptions engraved on tortoise shells and animal bones were found at the capital site of the Yin Dynasty and Xiaotun, Anyang, Henan Province.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty,Cai LunHe invented the method of making paper with plant fiber. He used plant raw materials such as bark, hemp head, rag and fishing net to make paper through the processes of beating, tamping, copying and baking. It is the origin of modern paper.
⊙ 2 from instinct to intelligence: Centennial changes of modern data storage
From instinct to intelligence, it has gone through a century of earth shaking.
Modern data storage has undergone earth shaking changes after about a hundred years. How can people think that IOPs can reach more than 2 million full flash arrays 100 years ago?
From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, punched tapes and punched cards were used in “programmed” looms and other industrial machines. This technology has beenHerman Hollerith Specially used for data storage in the 1890 census, he initially designed a circular hole array prototype with 12 rows and 24 columns.
1932In Austria, the drum memory of early computers appeared, that is, the drum memory, which mainly includes a rotating cylinder surrounding a ferromagnetic medium strip and a row of fixed read / write heads.
A three-dimensional simulated drum memory forms an array, which is equivalent to a hard disk. This is a low-cost implementation method, which greatly improves the storage capacity and speed of the memory. Magnetic drum storage has been successfully used inIBM 650In the supercomputer and released in 1953.IBM 650With a length of 16 inches and a diameter of 4 inches, the drum rotates at 750 kHz and can store up to 8.5 KB of data.
Drum memory was used as the main external memory of computers in the 1950s and 1960s. It uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to record (write) and regenerate (read) digital information. It is composed of magnetic drum, magnetic head, read-write and decoding circuit and control circuit as information carrier.
However, the magnetic drum uses the magnetic material coated on the surface of the aluminum drum to store data. The drum rotation speed is very high, so the access speed is fast. It adopts saturated magnetic recording, develops from fixed magnetic head to floating magnetic head, and develops from magnetic glue to electroplated continuous magnetic medium. All these laid the foundation for the later disk storage.
1946In January,RajchmanAnd his colleagues invented the selector tube at RCA. It is a digital storage device established by a vacuum tube. The data is stored in the form of static charge. It includes a cathode closed cylindrical grid line and a metal plate surrounded by a multi-layer structure. The key components are writing board and reading board. The wire grid is divided into “holes” from writing board to storage, and the unit is bit.
Selectively applying voltage to two orthogonal double adjacent wires allows any point to accumulate (write) or release (delete) static charge. If the disk catches the charge, the subsequent electron flow will read the data. This 76 mm wide and 250 mm diameter long device has a storage capacity of 4096 bits each.
1950, the world’s first computer with the function of storing programs, EDSACFeng NeumannThe doctor led the design. Its main feature is that it adopts binary system, uses mercury delay line as memory, and instructions and programs can be stored in computer.
1951In March, the main designer of ENIACLester EckertAnd the first universal automatic computer univac-i designed by mochili. Univac-i uses tape drive as external memory for the first time. Firstly, parity check method and double operation circuit are used to improve the reliability of the system, and the test of automatic programming is carried out first.
In order to find a better memory, people have made great efforts, and almost all available physical phenomena, electricity, light, sound and magnetism, have been explored. Engineer developing ENIACJohn W. MauchlyI thought of mercury delay line, which was also a storage device developed for military radar during World War II as memory.
Obviously, the development and evolution of these storage technologies is the beginning of the century change of data storage.
⊙ 3 tape: an enduring medium
here we are191980s, tape recorders are all the rage. Do you remember TDK tapes? They can record for about an hour.
Dear, do you remember the direction of the tape? It seems that the memory of cassette and rewind was still so clear. Does this rolling tape remind you of some beautiful memories?
There is also such a pile of tapes, which used to be put in many people’s study.
Tape is great, cheap and easy to expand. It is also one of the common storage media with the lowest cost, the largest capacity and the highest degree of standardization in the development of all memory devices.
Who remembers the sun StorageTek sl48 tape library, a classic.
Tape library is a tape based backup system, which can provide the same basic automatic backup and data recovery functions, but at the same time, it has more advanced technical characteristics. Its storage capacity can reach hundreds of Pb. It can realize continuous backup and automatic tape search. It can also realize intelligent recovery, real-time monitoring and statistics under the control of drive management software. The whole data storage and backup process is completely free from manual interference.
It’s hard to find photos. You’ll have a look.
In 1950, American physicist Wang an put forward the idea of using magnetic materials to make memory.Andrew Forrest It turns this idea into reality. In order to realize core storage, Forrester needs a substance that should have a very clear magnetization threshold. He found this kind of wire mesh and core woven on the wire network, which is called core storage. Its relevant patents are very key to the development of computers.
But what is a magnetic core? In short, it is a small magnetic ring, which is the mainstream storage device of computers in the 1950s and 1960s.
Its shape is like a doughnut. Each small magnetic ring can be given a forward or reverse magnetic field through current. The forward represents a binary “1” and the reverse represents a “0”. Many small magnetic rings can be worn to express a certain meaning in a binary way. For example, the Arabic numeral “5” is “101” in binary. To express the Arabic numeral “5”, only three magnetic cores are needed. The first one has a forward magnetic field, the second one has a reverse magnetic field, and the third one has a forward magnetic field. This is “5”.
Obviously, you can store data in this way, but you can think about how many magnetic rings are needed to express a thousand and eight thousand numbers, and how many magnetic rings are needed to express a “I love you”?
Well, the well-known 1KB is 1024 bytes. You need 82 core storage boards and 8192 cores. If you need 1MB (1MB), how many do you want to wear? What about 1GB? 1TB If you really want to wear it, I don’t know if you will wear it to death, huh?
However, at that time, the scheme was not only reliable but also stable. Magnetization is relatively permanent, so the stored data remains after the power of the system is turned off. Since magnetic fields can be read at the speed of electrons, this makes interactive computing possible. Further, because it is a wire grid, any part of the storage array can be accessed, that is, different data can be stored in different locations of the wire grid, and a bunch of bits at the reading location can be accessed immediately. This is calledRandom access memory (RAM), it is an innovative concept of interactive computing.
Magnetic core storage has been the standard way of computer main memory from the 1950s, 1960s to the early 1970s. Since the 1950s,All large and medium computersThis system is also used. (Wang An’s influence is still very far-reaching…)
⊙ 4 disk storage HDD: follow the trend, surging
Fortunately, as early as 1956, the world’s first hard disk was finally made byIBMThe design is completed. This is calledIBM350 RAMAC (random access method of accounting and control) has a huge volume of hard disk products, but the capacity is only 5MB. A total of 50 24 inch disks are used.
1973IBMThe company manufactured the first hard disk using “Winchester” technology. From then on, the development of hard disk technology has a correct structural foundation. It has a capacity of 60MB, a speed slightly lower than 3000rpm, four 14 inch disks and a storage density of 1.7mb per square inch.
1991IBMThe 3.5-inch hard disk produced is usedMRThe magnetic head makes the capacity of the hard disk reach 1GB for the first time, and the capacity of the hard disk has entered the order of GB since then. However, IBM’s hard disk business was not kept because IBM later sold its hard disk division to Hitachi, which formed Hitachi global storage technology (hgst) based on the strategic integration between IBM and its own storage business. However, hgst was sold to WD on March 7, 2011.
1999September 7,MaxtorAnnounced the first ATA hard disk with a single disk capacity of up to 10.2gb, thus introducing the capacity of the hard disk to a new milestone.
2000February 23,HopeNimbleCheetah x15 series hard disks with speeds up to 15000 RPM have been released. Its average seek time is only 3.9 Ms. it is also the highest speed hard disk by far.
Hard disk is not only used in various computers and servers, but also a basic storage unit in disk array and various network storage systems.
Of course, there are helium hard disk, SMR, HAMR, bpmr, HDMR (bpmr + hmar Technology), bpmr + (bpmr technology supplemented by SMR Technology) and other sophisticated disk technologies and processes. Hard disk capacity has also reached TB level long ago.
floppy diskIt was also popular from the 1970s to the end of the 20th century, but now it has disappeared, let alone.
alsoCDSimilarly, it was popular between the 1970s and 1990s, but after the application of Blu ray technology, Blu ray disc library is also a common device for user data storage.
⊙ 5 flash memory technology SSD: global rise, sweeping everything
Flash memory is now on a par with disk, so special digital integrated circuit chip, RAM chip and flah chip have improved the development of flash memory field.
In 1984,eastZhi companyFirstly, the concept of fast flash memory is proposed. 1988, intelThe company introduced a 256K bit flash memory chip, which was later collectively referred to as nor flash memory. However, it was soon robbed of the limelight by flash memory called NAND. NAND was developed by Hitachi in 1989 and is considered an ideal alternative to NOR flash memory.
NAND flash memoryIts write cycle is ten times shorter than nor flash memory, and its save and delete processing speed is also relatively fast. NAND’s storage unit is only half of nor, and NAND achieves better performance in smaller storage space. In view of the excellent performance of NAND, it is often applied to memory cards such as CompactFlash, SmartMedia, SD, MMC, XD, and PC cards, USB sticks and so on.
The development of flash memory also promotes the development of solid-state hard disk.Solid state disk(solid state drives), referred to as fixed disk for short, SSD is a hard disk made of solid-state electronic storage chip array, which is composed of control unit and storage unit (flash chip and DRAM chip).
1970，Sun StorageTekThe company developed the first solid state drive. In 1989, the world’s first solid state drive appeared.
Due to the difference between solid-state disk technology and traditional hard disk technology, there are many emerging memory manufacturers. Manufacturers only need to buy NAND memory and cooperate with appropriate control chips to manufacture solid-state drives. Sata-2 interface, sata-3 interface, SAS interface, msata interface, PCI-E interface, ngff interface, CFAST interface and sff-8639 interface are widely used in the new generation of solid state drives.
With tape, disk, flash memory chip and solid-state disk, data storage is accelerating. With the emergence of relevant enterprise storage products, such as disk array, virtual tape library, large SAN storage array (high-end storage), etc.
Curiosity makes one progress, while boredom makes one lag behind. Of course, the development of today’s data storage is changing with each passing day. Including cloud storage, software defined storage, full flash array, nvme PCIe flash memory card (disk), etc., the form of storage products has changed greatly, and Fan Wei’s definition of storage is more extensive and rich.
⊙ 6 opposite of disk: is it just flash memory?
Storage has developed for many years. To be exact, it is not an ancient form of storage. Since the birth of drum memory in 1932, storage has developed for nearly 84 years.
Tape storage has also emerged, including enterprise users who continue to use tape inventory storage products. And CD-ROM storage. Some people may still remember the common CD-ROM repository on the market more than 10 years ago. Of course, now the CD-ROM storage medium has such an innovation as Blu ray storage. According to insiders, there is still red light storage in China, but it has not been well operated or popularized.
At the same time, tape storage and optical disk storage are still used in the enterprise user market. They did not disappear because IBM invented hard disk in 1956. However, the surging of hard disk manufacturers did make tape and optical disk storage slowly lose its mainstream voice in the world. For example, in the data centers of users in some industries, we can still see that the products of tape library and optical disk library are still in use.
Obviously, tape storage and optical storage still have their application value in the field of data backup and archiving for some enterprise users.
Since tape storage and optical storage have not disappeared due to the rise of disk, is it too early for us to say that the disappearance of disk?
The answer to this question mainly lies in whether the development of flash memory can force disk into a dead end. How to understand it? If we want to understand it in this way, now we can think in a narrow sense: the opposite of disk is flash memory.
However, how many hardships has flash memory experienced?
The most common flash memory products are SSD products, such as nvme SSD, SAS SSD and SATA SSD. SSD has its own advantages and disadvantages because of different interfaces and architecture protocols. There are three common forms of flash memory card:; Second, flash disk; The third is flash memory array.
Flash cards are mostly used on servers. In order to improve the storage performance of servers or directly use flash memory as cache, the acceleration effect of applications in specific environments is still immediate.
Flash disk is also a convenient form for hybrid storage array or flash array applications. Previously, flash memory manufacturers have introduced flash disk with sff-8639 interface to support users’ hot plug. Of course, some storage manufacturers have introduced PCIe SSDs that support sff-8639 interface and plug them into the server. The PCIe SSD of this interface communicates with the motherboard using PCIe signal, so it can really show the due contribution of SSD in performance. Of course, there are also smaller flash drives, such as SSDs with U.2 and m.2.
It is only necessary to explain here: the U.2 interface is the previous sff-8639. U.2 is the interface specification launched by SSD form factor work group. Some enterprise flash memory manufacturers have launched SSD products of U.2. M. 2. Intel took the lead in formulating the interface standard, which is smaller and faster. Its original name is ngff interface. M.2 is basically a customized standard for ultrabook. I won’t talk about it here.
As for the flash memory array that we attach great importance to at present, it is also divided into two main forms: hybrid flash memory array with mixed SSD disk and HDD disk and full flash memory array.
From SSD to the bottom layer, there are flash memory particles. Common flash memory particles such as SLC, MLC (including consumer level CMLC and enterprise level EMLC), TLC, 3D NAND, etc. they have different flash memory structures and manufacturing processes. The manufacturing technology and process of NAND particles and the quality of wafers largely determine the quality of flash memory particles. Manufacturers of flash cards, flash disks and flash arrays generally test the wafer quality of flash fabs. But usually, the wafer factory will actively provide different levels of wafers to the flash memory manufacturer, and then the latter will adopt different wafers according to the product positioning.
Even if the wafers provided by the same flash wafer manufacturer are packaged into flash cards according to different grades, the quality of the finished products will be different. To a large extent, it depends on the product positioning of the flash card manufacturer. Sometimes we see that the products provided by some flash card manufacturers to users are cheap, and even break the normal price of the market. One of them should have something to do with wafers.
Because of the cruelty of market competition, and because some users, especially Internet users, attach great importance to the price factor when purchasing flash cards, it will indeed promote some flash memory manufacturers to successfully bid at a particularly low price. The flash memory products often provide high failure rate of flash cards in specific applications due to the poor quality of wafers.
From this logic, the development of flash cards is closely related to the technological progress of wafer factories and the quality of wafers provided. Technological progress can also improve the quality of wafers.
For some professional flash memory manufacturers, they will retest the wafers of the wafer suppliers, remove the bad wafers, then enter their own manufacturing process for cutting, stack and package them into flash memory particles. However, it should be pointed out that the packaging technology of flash memory particles with different capacities is difficult, and the quality of encapsulated flash memory particles may also be good or bad due to the technical problems of packaging process. Therefore, some flash memory manufacturers that only use flash memory particles instead of their own packaging need to monitor the quality of particles again after receiving the supply from particle manufacturers, and then enter the manufacturing process after screening. This is the performance of the most responsible person for applying flash memory to end users.
Therefore, flash memory has experienced many stories in terms of wafer, particle and packaging. Because of the rich and colorful development of flash memory, technologies emerge one after another, which brings the pressure of flash memory on traditional disk technology as a whole.
⊙ 7 3D NAND Technology: start technical pressure disk group
The emergence of 3D NAND has brought great opportunities to the whole flash memory industry. Compared with 2D NAND, the benefits of 3D NAND are obvious.
Broadly speaking, the opposite of disk should be the it challenge brought by the innovative business that users have developed for a long time. Business is changing, and new changes are taking place in the IT system, architecture and mode driven by nature. To meet the business changes of users, innovative storage solutions will naturally become the opposite of traditional disk storage. However, the development of affairs is not an absolute opposition, but a gradual substitution of innovative schemes for traditional schemes in the process of opposing development. From the perspective of the overall development trend of the industry, this is a gradual process. From the practical application of each user, this is another urgent thing.
Looking back on the past, every major innovation in storage technology is driven by changes in users’ internal needs. The general trend is like this. Based on the analysis of the technical characteristics and maturity of 3D NAND itself, a flash memory that is better than the previous 2D NAND cost consideration is gradually presented, which is expected to catalyze the flash memory to obtain a new round of disk media replacement process.
From the perspective of the latest technical architecture, 3D NAND is now commonly divided into two architectures: VC vertical channel and VG vertical gate. With different architectures, the reliability design of 3D NAND is slightly different, but there is no difference in the essence of flash memory. Because, after all, the stack is used to expand the flash memory capacity per unit area. At present, the well-known flash memory manufacturers in the industry adopt the 32-layer stack and 48 layer stack mode. The more layers, the higher the challenge for the reliability requirements of flash memory.
However, Toshiba and WD have announced in recent two or three years that they have successfully developed and launched 64 layer stacked 3D NAND flash. Of course, the process technology has also been greatly tested, and it is planned to start mass production in the first half of 2017.
As a major manufacturer of NAND flash, Samsung reported that it would start mass production of 64 layer 3D NAND before the end of 2016. But in fact, it didn’t really come true until 2017.
While we enjoy the 3D NAND manufacturing of the building competition, how many people will consider its quality, especially reliability and stability. In addition, it is believed that 64 layer 3D NAND will be first applied in the consumer market, and it may have to wait for hope in the enterprise market. As for the 128 layer 3D NAND, we can look forward to it.
Therefore, we need a serious attitude towards the quality of flash memory products in order to really launch high-quality flash memory products (SSD) that are conducive to users’ practical applications.
It can be seen that we still need to hope that Samsung, SK Hynix, Toshiba, Shandi, Intel and micron, the six major flash memory particle manufacturers, of course, Shandi was later acquired. Only when we go together can we provide a stable, reliable and safe 3D NAND, rather than building buildings and killing each other.
At the same time, blindly pursuing the PK of flash memory capacity, price and disk should be a very dangerous idea.
Whether the disk will disappear or not is not achieved by the fierce pursuit of flash memory transition. It is ultimately verified by the user’s large-scale long-term application.
Therefore, some users who see flash memory array replacing traditional disk array show the development trend of flash memory we want to see. However, the quality and quality of SSD accessories used in flash memory array will be greatly reduced. Sometimes we hope to improve the overall quality of SSD in the system by flash memory software algorithm and firmware optimization. However, it is like an expert who wants to practice peerless martial arts. If he only emphasizes internal skills (Software functions such as flash memory optimization algorithm), Without the strong support of strong and excellent underlying high-quality chips and manufacturing technology, peerless martial arts is just a fantasy.
Internal skill and external skill are advanced simultaneously. I believe that flash memory can not only get better price and cost, but also obtain more reliable and stable performance, so as to make a new breakthrough in capacity, and further approach the level of traditional HDD. Even beyond HDD, this is not impossible.
However, before flash memory surpasses HDD traditional disk, the most important thing to do is to improve the performance and capacity while achieving the overall improvement of stability, reliability and security.
At the same time, 3D NAND is causing great changes in storage.
Previously, flash memory was controversial in the industry and users because of its high cost. The evolution and application of 3D NAND technology triggered storage to cross the critical point of flash memory, which is pushing the storage industry to another era.
come fromWikibonstaytwo thousand and fourteenAccording to the data released in, the cost per GB of SSD will continue to decline in the next five years. By about 2023, the unit cost per GB of SSD will be the same as that of HDD. Of course, the biggest driving force of 3D mass production comes from NAND.
Even more optimistic industry analysts believe that fromTCOIn contrast, SSD is expected to reach or even lower than HDD in the future.
It can be seen that comparing the cost of SSD and HDD not only depends on the purchase price, but also needs to be considered from TCO.
Driven by 3D NAND technology, flash memory is more and more in line with Moore’s law. After every year and a half, you can buy double capacity at the same price.
3D NAND uses multi-layer stacking to reduce the cost of particles. Samsung first developed a 32 layer stacked 3D NAND product in 2015. As we all know, by 2016, includingSamsung, micron, Intel, SK Hynix, Toshiba, SanDiskAll the world’s top manufacturers of flash memory particles, including, have 32-layer stacked 3D NAND products.
Under the general trend of 3D NAND development, storage manufacturers help users achieve an unprecedented balance between improving storage performance and reducing TCO.
To this end, we also see the world’s representative enterprise storage manufacturers, such asHPE、NetApp、Dell EMC、Hitachi VantaraAnd so on. They have successively announced that they support the use of 3D NAND technology to upgrade storage arrays, and the storage array products from these storage manufacturers using 3D NAND can also be seen on the market. Thus, it can provide enterprise users with high-performance storage based on flash configuration, which has an unprecedented balance between performance and cost compared with traditional disk storage.
Not only does flash memory change due to 3D NAND and storage array change due to 3D NAND, but also the field of cloud computing is changing due to 3D NAND.
⊙ 8 2016: SSD global market “flesh and blood flying”
come fromIDC 2016 Gloable Enterprise SSD Market ShareAccording to our data,Samsung Samsung occupies 32.5% of the global market revenue of enterprise SSD and occupies an absolutely leading position;Intel ranked second in the global enterprise SSD market revenue, accounting for only 20.6% of the total market share. The third place is WD western data 18.2%, the fourth place is Toshiba Toshiba 7.5%, the fifth place is SanDisk Shandi 2.7%, the sixth place is Liteon 2.1%, the seventh place is micron micron micron 1.9%, and the share of other brands accounts for 14.5%.
Therefore, according to the global enterprise SSD market revenue data of idc2016, Intel has decreased from 23% in 2015 to 20.6%, down 2.4 percentage points, but Samsung is a success all the way. From only 18% in 2015 to 32.5% in 2016, up 24.5 percentage points, further widening the gap with Intel in market share.
If only looking at the comparison of enterprise market revenue share can not fully explain the problem. To see the overall volume of SSD, it is necessary to publish the change data of global SSD market scale in idc2016.
In 2016, the global SSD market reached US $16.9 billion,This figure is more true. Among them, Samsung’s enterprise SSD and consumer SSD together account for39.6%This is the SSD market revenue data of real gold and platinum, and it has increased by 25.3% compared with the same period last year. Ranked second behind wd13 6%, an increase of 132.3% over the same period last year. Ranked third intel12 2%, an increase of 14.9% compared with last year. Toshiba Toshiba ranked fourth, up 114.2% from last year. Ranked fifth, Lite (Lite on) 4.7%, an increase of 113.6% over last year. Micron micron is about 4%, down 14% from last year. It is also the only flash memory manufacturer with declining revenue in the SSD market.
Then in 2016, Samsung’s 3D NAND took the lead in leading the whole chip market, becoming a market leader and64th floorThe first mass production manufacturer of stacked 3D NAND. Therefore, the fight in the field of 3D NAND is still very fierce.
Unexpectedly, when SK Hynix’s official website reported its 2016q3 on October 25, 2016, it revealed reliable news. SK company will complete the development of 72 layer 3D NAND in the first half of 2017 and will start mass production from the second half of 2017.
If carried out as planned, SK Hynix will become the world’s first flash chip manufacturer to mass produce 72 layer 3D NAND. In the fight with Samsung and Meguiar in 3D NAND, SK Hynix is expected to be in a leading position in the production and manufacturing of 72 layer 3D NAND flash memory chips.
However, so far, we haven’t seen the news of mass production of SK Hynix 72 layer 3D NAND.
Of course, this is our guess based on the official news of SK Hynix. At present, we can’t completely determine who will become the biggest winner in the field of 3D NAND. After all, the application of 3D NAND has just begun. Even if SK Hynix is the first to develop and mass produce 72 layer 3D NAND, it’s still a mystery about the production capacity, cost control and reliability stability.
However, it is said that Samsung also has96th floor3D NAND has been put into research and development, but there is no reliable information about when Samsung will produce in mass. There is even news that Samsung is also coveting128 floorsResearch and development of 3D NAND technology. Whether it’s true or not, it’s enough to excite everyone.
Of course, in the field of 3D NAND, it is not surprising that the PK between Samsung and SK Hynix has a long history.
Because Samsung, Hynix and other flash memory manufacturers have accelerated the mass production of 3D NAND, it has also led to a shortage of NAND supply for a period of time.
Meguiar executives who “stand by and watch the play” revealed that,The previous shortage of NAND was mainly caused by factory transformation, and the production cycle of 3D NAND was longer than that of 2D NAND. With the mature production transformation from 2D NAND to 3D NAND, the supply capacity will be better guaranteed.
Seeing the global development trend, NAND will still grow higher than DRAM. In the future, the whole market trend of NAND will still perform well.
Interestingly, even in enterprise class areas with high performance requirements,SATA interface is still the absolute mainstreamOn the contrary, the proportion has increased to nearly 80%, and SAS and PCI-E are still very small. Therefore, only from the perspective of interface type, SSD with SATA interface still takes the lead.
⊙ 9 2017-2018: SSD starts to pry the whole earth
An article from Laomei that seems to be a prediction points out that there will be eight major trends in enterprise SSD in 2017. However, in Amin’s view, it is not only these eight trends, but also the greater impact is that with the deepening of enterprise SSD in the key business applications of enterprise users, it is subverting the whole storage world.
Of course, objectively speaking, HDD technology has been used for more than 50 years and will not disappear overnight, but this industry must change. Because enterprise SSD applications have become more and more popular, enterprise users feel that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages.
It has been predicted that there may be several major trends in enterprise SSD in 2016. What have they confirmed? We can explain the influence and significance of enterprise SSD from these evidences.
As predicted in 2015 at that time, all flash data centers have indeed appeared in 2016.
However, I seem to remember that SanDisk was the first to put forward the concept of full flash data center. An article written by a senior manager of SanDisk said that advocating full flash data center will be the general trend. Although we have not seen the case of SanDisk successfully building an all flash data center. However, as a descendant in the field of flash memory, an enterprise flash memory manufacturer in China has successfully helped a cloud build a storage platform based on PCIe SSD. Of course, this can also facilitate cloud providers to provide users with pure flash storage services.
The full flash data center here is not a data center configured with full flash array, but the storage medium is all enterprise SSD. This is why SDS became one of the storage hotspots in 2016.
Not only that, we also see that many domestic enterprise users are beginning to adopt more and more full flash arrays, and even many manufacturers such as HPE and Dell are moving towards popularization in the development and utilization of flash arrays. Compared with HDD, the price of enterprise SSD has been close to or even lower than that of HDD according to TCO and purchase cost.
Therefore, around the end of 2016, the United States and Laos also pointed out that the software defined storage of all flash memory will become a new trend in predicting the trend of enterprise SSD. Here we talk about SDS, which is more due to the popularity of VMware, nexenta and open source CEPH.
At the same time, Amin also saw the growth of many domestic start-ups in the field of SDS. This makes people in the industry feel the popularity trend of enterprise SSD. Therefore, the all flash data center will enter more user fields from now on. In addition, foreign enterprise users have taken enterprise SSD as a way of data archiving, which proves that the relationship between enterprise SSD and HDD has undergone earth shaking changes.
⊙ 10 full flash enlightenment: why be careful?
For integrated manufacturers of traditional enterprise storage, such as IBM, Dell, EMC, HPE and NetApp, full flash array is only one of their innovative product lines. When the global full flash array market is close to US $5 billion, this innovative storage product line has gradually become their main product.
It is precisely because such manufacturers have comprehensive solutions for enterprise storage, even including the overall solution design and deployment of data center and hybrid cloud, as well as operation and maintenance capabilities. Therefore, it is easier to cut into the specific needs of enterprise user market, so as to win more practical application opportunities for enterprise users.
Relatively speaking, innovative companies such as violin memory, pure storage and nimble storage that blindly focus on full flash memory have more products focused on full flash memory. The comprehensive ability of solutions will be significantly weaker than that of traditional enterprise storage manufacturers, including market expansion and coverage ability, channel and service ability, but their advantage is to break the re innovation of traditional enterprise storage. It is precisely because of their efforts that they have driven the startup, development and rapid growth of the whole flash array market.
After all, from the perspective of comprehensive factors such as scale, volume, user familiarity and service ability, the development of innovative companies will naturally encounter many challenges and obstacles. This is also the trend of innovative companies such as violin memory, pure storage and nimble storage from the original Star storage companyIPOAfter that, it will still face the embarrassment of delisting. A good place to go is to be acquired by a suitable comprehensive enterprise IT manufacturer, which will eventually become a product line of comprehensive enterprise IT manufacturers.
Since the all flash memory market is already in a very active state, plusSamsung, Meguiar, SK HynixWith the continuous innovation of the three major 3D NAND suppliers, it is reliable that 64 layer 3D NAND chips will also be mass produced in the second half of 2017. Even we see the news that flash card manufacturers are expected to sell 20tb single card capacity products in 2017. All this is driving the all flash array market to become the focus of enterprise storage again.
All this is the result of the development of storage technology itself. However, in the Chinese market, many domestic storage manufacturers have heard that they are or will soon launch self-developed full flash array products. The specific manufacturer’s name will not be named here. I believe everyone has heard of it.
It can be seen that the whirlpool of full flash memory seems to have brought all domestic and foreign manufacturers involved in enterprise storage!
However, don’t forget that the four elements of stability, performance, price and scalability are the test of full flash memory.
All flash memory that is not intended for application will quickly become history. First, consider the application of enterprise users, so you need to polish the stability for a long time. In terms of performance, according to the architecture of all flash array in the current market, it seems that everyone can easily achieve it. However, it is not easy to combine performance with stability and scalability at the same time.3D NANDAlthough the evolution of technology can greatly reduce the overall price of all flash arrays, the optimization of Flash software also plays a very important role in the price. In other words, full flash memory cannot be regarded as an isolated storage product, but needs to be treated as an overall solution. Make great efforts in enterprise storage functions and the stability and scalability that users are most concerned about, which is possible for latecomers.
If we only worry about gain and loss in the development of all flash memory array, or have “speculation”, it is not desirable, and it is difficult to really become a climate. Instead of following suit, it’s better to calm down and do a good job in the important aspect of stability, and then gradually enrich enterprise level functions and expand the integration of product performance and functions. However, such a route can not be achieved in a year or two. “Stand loneliness and temptation” can achieve great things.
Now that we have all been pulled in by the gravity of this vortex of all flash memory, we might as well sink down and become a leader in the development history of all flash memory“Pebbles”, isn’t it also a kind of success to find your own position and pave the road steadily?
It should be noted that whether the latter two types defined by IDC for all flash array AFA are more suitable for domestic storage manufacturers to consider? Pure hard full flash should eventually be integrated into the overall solution. Instead of wasting energy on pure hard design, it is better to choose a more moderate development route. It is not impossible for the native hybrid array to grow, especially in view of the diversified needs of Chinese enterprise storage users. Perhaps this is a more appropriate development path.
However, even if the development of single storage media is not strong enough to replace all the traditional storage media, flash memory will not be able to replace all the traditional storage media in the long run. It can be seen that all flash memory array will also become a new ecosystem in the field of enterprise storage. From top to bottom, from left to right. Under the action of the new ecology, the full flash array can truly become the future pillar of enterprise storage.
Finally, there is the old saying: 2017 is destined to be an extraordinary year of all flash memory.
⊙ 11 IOT of Internet of things: leading to the change of storage
IOT Internet of things has brought new perception and business opportunities to the whole society and all business types. Therefore, some institutions have estimated that IOT’s industry potential is far in the scale of trillion.
According to the Research Report on the operation situation and investment strategy of China’s Internet of things market from 2016 to 2022 released by domestic intelligent research consulting, the number of global Internet of things terminals reached 6.4 billion in 2016, an increase of 30% over 2015. By 2020, the number of Internet of things terminals used in the world will reach 20.8 billion. In 2016, the scale of consumer Internet of things market reached US $546 billion, while the expenditure of enterprise Internet of things was US $868 billion. In the next few years, the domestic Internet of things industry will continue to develop rapidly, with an average annual growth rate of about 30%. By 2018, the market scale of the Internet of things industry will exceed 1.5 trillion yuan.
Facing the potential of trillion scale, a large amount of data must be stored in a large number of media. One is traditional disk storage and the other is enterprise SSD. So how many of these requirements are for enterprise SSD? According to the current trend of edge computing that we talk about more, edge computing will be a very important aspect in the field of IOT in the future. Therefore, computing and storage on the IOT side really need to be matched. Although there is no clear data to measure in this regard, it can at least tell you that this direction will bring more extensive application of IOT to enterprise SSD.
⊙ 12 nvme interface: what do you rely on to win the favor of the world?
Nvme has attracted the attention of people in the industry since its birth.
LED and strongly promoted by Intel, the architecture of nvme is becoming more and more mature. Why can nvme be so popular?
In fact, nvme, like the familiar AHCI and SATA interfaces, belongs to the interface standard. The full English name of AHCI is serial ATA advanced host controller interface, and the Chinese interpretation is serial ATA Advanced Host Controller Interface / advanced host controller interface. AHCI is also an interface standard jointly developed by many companies under the guidance of Intel.
The full English name of SATA is serial advanced technology attachment. The Chinese explanation is serial advanced technology attachment, that is, serial hardware driver interface. It is also a standard specification initiated and established by Intel and many large manufacturers.
It can be seen that the real upstream manufacturers are like Intel, setting standards, fixing the rules of the game, and then “playing” with a large group of industrial chain manufacturers.
However, whether it is AHCI or SATA, the delay, IOPs and power consumption of these two interfaces are limited due to the definition of their own standards and technical specifications. These two interfaces are designed for mechanical hard disks with high latency, which has become an obvious bottleneck in the application of SSD.
The full name of nvme is non volatile memory express in English, and the Chinese explanation is the nonvolatile memory standard. Because it performs better in parallelism and low delay, nvme can be called directly by the processor without south bridge switching, reducing IO operations, and supporting receiving commands and priority processing requests from multi-core processors at the same time. Therefore, the performance advantage is obvious in enterprise level load testing.
At present, the industry has also tested the storage performance of dual port nvme SSD. At the same time, because one storage can be connected to two different controllers, one controller fails and the other controller can take over, which improves the security of SSD and enhances the reading and writing performance. For example, the new idea of connecting two SSDs to the full SSD array can also be used for the new design of NV SSD array.
3D NAND has reached a key point that has attracted more and more attention from users and manufacturers. At present, the 3D NAND of 48 layer process has been mass produced, and Samsung is more active. SK Hynix, Toshiba / Sandi and Intel / micron follow closely, and no one is satisfied with anyone.
Everyone is:Hold 3D and do not relax, and set the root in NAND.The shopping is still strong in the end. Why are you afraid to end up empty.
Once the 3D NAND process is upgraded again and the 64 layer product is mass produced, once the process breaks through the 128 layer and realizes mass production and popularization, the death time of the disk may be really near.
⊙ 13 2019: high capacity SSD showing its edge?
Jean Jacques maleval, editor of storagenewsletter website, made a meaningful summary and made a statistical and simple summary on the current global product status of SSD hard disks with a capacity of 10TB and above.
This statistic keeps the list of all SSDs published since 1991, including 1252 hard disks and their main specifications. However, the table statistics in the article are only for equipment of 10TB and above.
Here are all devices with a capacity of 10TB and above, but not all devices are available. Interesting
The first two SSDs are fromSeagate TechnologyHowever, it was not officially launched. 64tb was just a demo at the flash memory summit in 2017. 60tb SAS SSD is also a technology in the demo stage, but it has never been publicly mass produced and sold to users. At present, it can be seen that Seagate technology’s official website shows that the enterprise solid state drive with the largest capacity is15TBNytro 3000 with SAS interface, 12gb / s.
According to the statistics in this table, the capacity of many SSD hard disks is larger than the largest HDD Hard Disk we can see on the market, which is 16TB and 3.5 inches. However, in a roadmap of its own products, Seagate looks forward to launching a single 100TB HDD mechanical hard disk created by HAMR technology by 2025. However, by 2025, SSD may have exceeded 100TB per disk long ago, right? Hee hee.
Although some hard disk manufacturers have introduced solid state drives in the size of 3.5 inches for some time, no one will continue to produce on such a large scale. Now most of them use 2.5-inch dimensions or PCIe cards to design and launch SSD products.
Therefore, SSD has generally surpassed HDD in the design of space utilization.
In terms of interface,At present, we can find 12gb SAS, 6GB SATA, PCIe nvme with significantly improved performance, and more manufacturers will launch nvme over fabric (nvme of). For example, at the 2018 us flash summit, some manufacturers launched nvme of full flash array, with IOPs reaching 16 million in performance. Driven by more system storage manufacturers, it may accelerate the enrichment of nvme of related storage products.
In terms of flash memory manufacturing technology,use64 layer stackQTLs / cell (bits / cell) and QLC (bits / cell) products have been unveiled in 2018. At the same time, it can be seen in 2018Samsung, Intel, micronWhen there are plans to launch96 layer stack3D NAND, which will certainly promote the substantial increase of the single disk capacity of SSD solid state disk.
At present, according to the storage mode, NAND flash memory has developed to four generations, namelySLC、MLC、TLC、QLC。
The first generation SLC can store 1 bit data (1 bits / cell) per unit,It has good performance and long service life, and can withstand 100000 programming / erasing cycles, but it is very rare now because of its low capacity and high cost.
The second generation MLC can store 2 bits of data (2 bits / cell) per unit,The performance, service life, capacity and cost are relatively balanced. It can withstand 10000 programming / erasing cycles. Now it can be seen only in a few high-end SSDs.
The third generation TLC can store 3 bits of data (3bits / cell) per unit,The performance and service life become worse. It can only withstand 3000 programming / erasing cycles, but the capacity can be larger and the cost can be lower. At present, it is the most popular.
The fourth generation QLC can store 4 bits of data (4 bits / cell) per unit,The performance and service life become worse and can only withstand 1000 programming / erasing cycles, but the capacity is easier to improve and the cost continues to decrease. At present, storage system manufacturers have a good understanding of the future development of QLC.
In 2018, the prices of 3D NAND chips and solid state drives will decline, and this trend may continue until 2019. However, for the hard disk market with more than 10TB, SSD solid state disk is still expanding rapidly, and traditional HDD Hard disk is unmatched in the future. However, at present, the mainstream SSD products in the market are still below 10TB. Perhaps when the price of SSD hard disk is lower and the application field of all flash memory system is more extensive, 10TB and above high-capacity SSD is expected to become the mainstream of the market and is expected to gradually replace most HDD high-capacity disks.
of course,In the field of high-capacity SSD, who is competing for the “peak”?Before the edge is exposed, anyone wants to be the highest mountain in this field! Any flash memory manufacturer bears its own historical mission and pressure. I’m afraid this is the most important thing to turn the mission into a revolution to replace HDD and the pressure into a driving force to promote SSD.
So,SSD completely replaces HDD, which is affected by two factors:One is the price and the other is the specific application of the storage system. Slowly, the development trend of flash memory is still clear, but it will take a long time to completely replace it.
However, judging from the development trend of HDD industry, there are only three HDD Hard Disk manufacturers left: Seagate technology, Toshiba and WD western data.
What are the HDD Hard Disk manufacturers in history? Thanks to Jean Jacques maleval, the foreign media technology editor of “kind-hearted people”, for sorting out the data. Here, I share it for your reference.
List of 221 HDD Hard Disk manufacturers recorded in history:
• Anelex Corp.
• Areal Technology – acquired by Tomen Corp in 1993
• Aura Associates
• Avatar Systems
• Bryant Computer Products
• Burroughs CorporaTIon – merged with Sperry Corporation to form Unisys in 1986
• Castlewood Systems
• Caelus Memories, Inc.
• Calluna Technologies
• Century Data
• Computer Memories Inc. (CMI) – left industry in 1986
• Computer Memory Technology (CMT)
• Conner Peripherals – merged with Seagate in 1996
• Control Data Corporation (CDC) / Imprimis Technology – sold hard disk drive business to Seagate in 1989
• Cornice LLC – bankrupt in 2007
• Data General Corporation
• Data Products Corp.
• Data Recording Instruments (DRI)
• Dataplay (DPHI, DaTARIUS)
• Diablo Systems – became Diablo Data Systems in 1972
• Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) – sold hard disk drive business to Quantum Corporation in 1994
• DZU (of Bulgaria) – converted from government-owned to private, and sold to Videoton_ (company) in 1999
• ExcelStor Technology – left industry
• Fuji Electric
• Fujitsu – HDD division acquired by Toshiba in July 2009
• General Electric (GE)
• Hewlett-Packard (HP) – 1976 to 1996, left industry
• Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (HGST) – 2002 merger of Hitachi and IBM disk drive businesses, sold to Western Digital in 2012 with part of 3.5-inch manufacturing facilities going to Toshiba
• Hokushin Electric Works
• Honeywell Bull
• IBM – HDD business acquired by Hitachi Global Storage Technologies in 2002
• Information Storage Systems acquired by Itel, then Univac and finally CDC
• Integral Peripherals – first rigid 1.8-inch drive; bankrupt in 1998
• Iomega – left industry
• ISOT of Bulgaria
• JT Storage (JTS) – bankrupt in 1999
• JVC – left industry
• Kalok – bankrupt in 1994
• LaCie – acquired by Seagate Technology in 2012
• LaPine Technologies
• Marshall Laboratories
• Matsushita – left industry in 2004
• Maxtor – acquired by Seagate in 2006
• Memorex – acquired by Burroughs 1981 and then merged into Unisys 1986; HDD division shut down in 1988
• Microcomputer Memories – left the industry
• Micropolis Corporation – bankrupt in 1997
• Microscience International – bankrupt in 1992
• MiniScribe – bankrupt and then acquired by Maxtor in 1990
• Ministor Peripherals – first mobile 1.8-inch drive; bankrupt in 1998
• Mitsubishi – left industry
• NEC – left industry
• Nippon Peripherals
• Pertec Computer
• Plus Development – subsidiary of Quantum; created Hardcard; absorbed back into Quantum 1992
• Potter Instrument
• PrairieTek – first 2.5-inch rigid HDD; bankrupt in 1991
• Priam Corporation – 1978-1989, became Priam Systems Corporation in 1990 and sold product line to Prima International in 1991
• Quantum Corporation – sold HDD business to Maxtor in 2001
• Raymond Engineering
• Rodime – first 3.5-inch rigid HDD; shut down manufacturing in 1991; licensed its patents until the patent business was sold for $1.5 million in July 2003. The company was then the subject of a reverse merger and became Sportech PLC.
• Samsung – HDD business acquired by Seagate for $1.4 billion in 2011
• Seiko Epson
• Shugart Associates – Acquired by Xerox in 1977 and shut down in 1986.
• Storage Technology Corporation (StorageTek or STK) – left industry
• Syquest – bankrupt in 1998; some patents acquired by Iomega. Re-emerged selling cartridges for their previously-discontinued products.
• Tandon Corporation – acquired by Western Digital in 1988
• Tulin Corporation – bankrupt
• Vertex Peripherals – acquired by Priam Corporation in 1985
⊙ 14 memory chip: supporting a new world of semiconductors in the world
The global semiconductor industry has been changing. 2018 is no exception.
IDCAccording to the released data, after the strong growth of 24% in 2017, the global semiconductor revenue is expected to grow to US $450 billion for the third consecutive year in 2018, an increase of 7.7% over 2017. In addition, the global NAND memory market in 2018 increased by 52% over 2017 to US $49 billion.
In fact, the figures of World Semiconductor Trade Statistics (WSTS), an independent non-profit organization, show that the growth in 2018 is even more amazing. On March 4thWSTSThe global semiconductor sales revenue statistics released was US $468.8 billion, an increase of 13.7% year-on-year compared with 2017. Not only is the total revenue close to $20 billion more than IDC expected, but the growth rate is also 6%.
Another analysis organizationGartnerThe data released on the revenue growth of global semiconductors in 2018 was 13.4%, reaching US $476.7 billion. This total revenue figure is $7.9 billion more than WSTS and $26.7 billion more than IDC.
Although the growth of global semiconductor revenue slowed slightly in 2018 compared with 2017, the overall market size is still satisfactory. From this, it is deduced that from 2017 to 2022, the compound annual growth rate of global semiconductor revenue will reach 2.9%. Don’t underestimate the growth rate of less than three points. Because the base is huge, IDC predicts that it will reach $482 billion by 2022. In my opinion, driven by cloud computing, big data, Internet of things, AI, 5g and other technologies, the global semiconductor revenue may be expected to increaseReaching a peak of $500 billion。
However, in the global semiconductor field, the contribution of memory in 2018 is very critical. Hahaha, this is due to strong demand, limited supply and product portfolio constraints, resulting in the rapid growth of the overall memory market.
In this regard, fromGartnerDeng Yajun, senior research director, said publicly recently: “the memory market, which covers NAND and DRAM, accounts for 34% of the total share of semiconductors. It can be said that the impact of memory on the IC industry is an effect that affects the whole body.”
In this regard, IDC and Gartner’s analysis of the global semiconductor industry is relatively consistent, and both emphasize the great contribution of memory to the semiconductor industry.
According to the data released by IDC, the DRAM and NAND memory markets grew to US $73 billion and US $49 billion respectively, with year-on-year growth rates of 77% and 52% respectively in 2017. It can be seen that the year-on-year growth rate of DRAM market in 2018 is much higher than that of NAND memory.
In 2018, DRAM and NAND in the global market together amounted to US $122 billion. This figure is very considerable. Except DRAM and NAND, the whole semiconductor market increased by 12% year-on-year. It can be seen that the growth of the global semiconductor market actually depends on their DRAM and NAND memory.
In 2018, non memory semiconductor is expected to grow by US $11 billion to US $302 billion. DRAM and NAND will continue to grow in 2019, but it is expected to decline slightly from 2019 to 2021 compared with previous years, and then recover slightly in 2022.
The strong memory market led Samsung Electronics to snatch the leading position of semiconductor manufacturing industry from Intel and enhance the image of all memory manufacturers.
Compared with only two memory manufacturers entering the global top5 semiconductor company in 2017, the global top5 semiconductor company in 2018 hasSamsung Electronics, SK Hynix, micron, accounting for three of the five major semiconductor companies. Meanwhile, the revenue concentration of the whole market continues to rise. In 2018, TOP10 accounted for 60% of the overall global semiconductor market, compared with 56% in 2016 and 53% in 2015.
Mario Morales, vice president of IDC semiconductor project, said: over the past five years, the market integration of the semiconductor industry has continued and shaped the competitive pattern of semiconductor suppliers, because each company is constantly improving its core market and making acquisitions to find new opportunities and emerging growth areas. With the rise of machine learning and autonomous system, more diversified architectures have been brought to cope with this opportunity, and the pace of change and technology is expected to accelerate. This will drive the growth of semiconductor technology in the next decade.
Throughout the forecast period, the automotive market and industrial market will continue to be the main growth areas of the semiconductor market, with compound annual growth rates of 9.6% and 6.8% from 2017 to 2022, respectively.
Key drivers from the automotive industry, such as electric vehicles, Internet of vehicles, on-board infotainment, ADAS (advanced driving assistance system) and autonomous driving, will continue to drive the growth of semiconductor content in each vehicle.
In this regard, Gartner’s analysis of automotive electronic semiconductors is also the same. “Although automotive electronics only accounts for 9% – 10% of the semiconductor scale, and the annual shipment volume is less than 100 million units, the gold content of semiconductors in each car is increasing year by year. Devices such as mmwave sensor and Bluetooth make cars smarter, and its gold content will be higher and higher.”
In addition,IDC also has several important predictions for global semiconductor development:
First, the semiconductor revenue of the computing industry will decline by 4.0% in 2019, and the compound annual growth rate in the forecast period from 2017 to 2022 will be – 0.7%.
Second, the two highlights in the computing field are computing and enterprise solid state drives, which grew at a high double-digit and 9.8% CAGR from 2017 to 2022 respectively.
Third, the semiconductor revenue of mobile wireless communication sector will increase by 5.5% in 2019, and the compound annual growth rate from 2017 to 2022 will be 5.8%.
Fourth, the annual growth rate of semiconductor revenue of 4G mobile phones in 2018 was 10.9%, and the compound annual growth rate from 2017 to 2022 was 3.1%. As 5g technology becomes the mainstream in the next decade, 5g will also promote the later growth predicted.
Fifth, communication infrastructure semiconductors are expected to grow at a CAGR of 1.7% from 2017 to 2022, with the strongest growth coming from consumer networks.
⊙ 15 future data storage world: no one is missing
Driven by the general trend, the growing data storage needs of enterprise users, data center users and public cloud users are naturally indispensable. In the scenarios of data protection, big data application, content creation and data archiving, it is the place where HDD enterprise high-capacity hard disk has the courage to play.
With the rise of distributed storage, open source platform and public cloud storage platform, it is not difficult for any enterprise user to realize EB level storage deployment. However, subject to the development law of SSD flash technology and the requirements of industry compliance, HDD enterprise level high-capacity hard disk has become the standard configuration of mass storage products and solutions of many data storage suppliers.
In fact, the core foundation of big data platform, artificial intelligence platform and Internet of things platform still lies in data storage. Even if SSD can play the application acceleration brought by flash performance, a large amount of data storage still needs mature, stable and cost-effective HDD enterprise class high-capacity hard disk to support.
In the era of big data, with the explosive growth of unstructured data, HDD is also the first choice for data storage such as video, audio and pictures. Especially in the field of medical big data such as biometrics and gene sequencing, HDD Hard disk has excellent service life and comprehensive advantages in storage capacity and cost price in ensuring the enterprise data life cycle.
Therefore, today when SSD is in power, HDD high-capacity hard disk is still the standard configuration of enterprise data center.
From this, we can draw a conclusion that SSD, HDD, tape and optical storage can find their own position, and everyone will exist in the future. History is like this. It prospers with the trend and declines against the current. and that.
In addition, in the future, the global market of semiconductor chips will be supported by the rise of memory chips. Therefore, the development of the global storage industry will also enter a new period.
In a few years, let’s continue this legend, okay?
This article is transferred from official account global storage observation by Amin